Do you love reading about royals as much as I do? If so, check out my 2020 royal reading list - all the research books I bought, borrowed, and re-read are listed here. I’m adding books as I read them, so check back to see if your picks made the list.
Just scroll down to get the info for each book, including my comments. Or use the table of contents below to jump straight to a book you’re already interested in.
Want to suggest a book for me this year? I’d love to know what titles you recommend. Click here to drop me a line.
Last updated: April 7
Some book links below may be Amazon affiliate links. If you choose to buy through that link, it doesn’t change your price at all, but Amazon will give me a few extra cents for the tiara research fund.
Subtitle: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia 1886-1901
Editor: Agatha Ramm
Publisher: Alan Sutton
Available at: Amazon (used)
This is the sixth and final volume of the letters between Queen Victoria and her eldest daughter, Vicky. It’s heartbreaking because you know both women die in 1901 – they’re facing the vicissitudes of aging, including watching friends and family members die. As for Vicky, she’s also battling painful spine cancer in the later years of this volume, so any moment of joy or levity is a superhuman effort for her. She’s an amazing human being who still has warmth, verve, and intelligence to spare. I miss her and I only ever knew her through these letters.
A New Editor
You might have noticed a new editor name – Roger Fulford, who’d edited the five previous volumes, died before this one could be put together. Our new editor is Agatha Ramm, and she does things a little differently. The most visible change? Endnotes instead of footnotes to explain the occasional esoteric reference, unfamiliar name, or family event referred to in the text. I’m sure there was a reason, but I HATED this. It’s so much easier to read the note at the bottom of the page than it is to bookmark the notes in the back, flip there, find your number, read it, and flip back. If an editor actually wants you to read the notes, they should be in the easiest possible spot for you to do so – on the damn page. Also, there were a couple mistakes in the editorial inserts (an incorrect anniversary of the battle of Sedan noted, getting Empress Augusta’s relationship to the Grand Duke of Baden wrong): super nitpicky stuff I feel bitchy even bringing up, but if I noticed them, someone way more versed in 19th century history is gonna notice them, too.< /rant >
I also wasn’t a fan of this editor’s introduction. Fulford kept his short and sweet – only the briefest of summaries of British politics, German politics, and world events. Ramm’s introduction…got boring. And I’m interested in Balkan politics in the 1880s. She gave a very thorough explanation of the troubled relationships between Britain, Russia, Italy, Germany, and Bulgaria, but it was pretty dry reading and I skimmed it.
I also have the feeling that this editor chose letters and selections a bit differently than Fulford. For the first quarter of the book, I felt disconnected from both Queen Victoria and Vicky. The letters were very dry and political – little warmth, insight, or family gossip. Later in the book, we get more of this, as if the editor realized that’s what makes the letters so fun and readable. Overall, this volume made me really miss Fulford – and respect his talent as an editor.
Okay, boring stuff over. What do we get in this volume?
Main Events & Themes in This Volume
- The beginning of the end for poor Sandro of Battenberg in Bulgaria. In the very first letter of the volume (January 23, 1886), Queen Victoria writes, “And the stupid Tsar cannot depose Sandro who am sure will never and ought never to desert his people; that after all is his first duty and object” (28). Well, the stupid tsar didn’t exactly depose Sandro—he kidnapped him and forced him to abdicate. Unfortunately, this didn’t help Vicky’s daughter, Moretta, who still hoped to marry Sandro. The previous volume showed us the beginning of this relationship, and this volume covers its excruciating drawn-out death. Poor Moretta. Even Queen Victoria finally recognized this as a lost cause, writing in May of 1888, “…I feel if you and Vicky really love him, you ought to set him free and spare his honourable name being assailed as it is now being, even by his friends” (72).
- The courtship and marriage of Vicky’s son Henry and Victoria’s granddaughter, Irene of Hesse. Apparently, there was a bit of a kerfuffle over this relationship. Empress Augusta of Germany didn’t think Henry really loved Irene! Later, after the wedding, Victoria had to remind Vicky that as he continues to grow up, Henry will become “softer and kinder” (78). I get the sense he was overly influenced by Wilhelm, who was a total dick to Vicky.
- Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee. It’s interesting to read Victoria and Vicky’s letters talking about the guest list and lodging arrangements. Vicky’s son Wilhelm (the future Kaiser) and his wife almost didn’t get invited due to their rudeness to the Battenberg princes (one of whom was now Queen Victoria’s son-in-law). Vicky played peacemaker, requesting they be invited. Victoria agreed, but said she couldn’t put them in Buckingham Palace – there was no room at the inn.
- Unfortunately, this is the volume that covers the death of Vicky’s husband, Fritz. This is such a sad story. I won’t linger on it here – read Hannah Pakula’s excellent An Uncommon Woman to get the whole story. I’ll just contribute one quote from Vicky as she adjusts to her widowhood and position as dowager empress: “The strain on my feelings would require almost superhuman strength to resist. I am so utterly alone. To live always with a gag on one’s mouth is very difficult after thirty years of happy married life” (80).
- The courtship and marriage of Vicky’s daughters: Moretta, Sophie, and Mossy. Sophie married Prince Constantine “Tino” of Greece, and Mossy married Prince Friedrich Charles “Fischy” of Hesse-Cassel. Moretta married Prince Adolpf of Schaumburg-Lippe – but her mom and grandma tried to find other eligible gents and failed. These references are all somewhat mysterious in the letters, but it looks like they were after Prince Charles of Sweden, a nameless young grand duke, and a widower whose first wife was nicknamed Mia. If you know who this is, please let me know!
- The courtship and marriage of several of Queen Victoria’s grandchildren: Alix of Hesse, Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, Marie and Victoria Melita of Edinburgh,
- Lots and lots of deaths. Lenchen’s son Christle, Henry of Hesse, Alfred (Victoria’s second son), Empress Elisabeth of Austria, Henry of Battenburg (“Liko,” her son-in-law), and Sandro of Battenburg, to name a few.
Other Interesting Tidbits
- Queen Victoria bought back letters her father had written and burned the ones that had info she didn’t want the world to know.
- After the mysterious murder/suicide at Mayerling, Crown Prince Rudolf’s widow, Stephanie of Belgium, wrote a letter to Vicky. Vicky forwarded that letter to her mom to read. Victoria was like, WTF…based on the way Stephanie wrote about the incident and Rudolf, it made Victoria think she didn’t love him. Contrast this with Vicky’s glowing report of Stephanie just after her marriage to Rudolf, which I quoted from the previous volume.
- In a total WTF moment, Prince Arthur, Queen Victoria’s third son, accidentally shot out the eye of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, QV’s son-in-law (Lenchen’s husband). It’s not just Dick Cheney these things happen to, apparently. Victoria explains it all to Vicky: “…but the poor eye…had to be removed yesterday. It is most extraordinary for he was very far off. The bird was killed and yet the whole charge lodged in his left eye and he has got shots in the forehead above the other eye and on the side of his chin!” (137)
- Vicky had a strange fondness for King Charles I. “My poor Charles I – how often you used to laugh at my affection for his memory. It is quite unaltered to this day. He is a martyr in my eyes…” (240)
Interesting Quotes I Picked Just for You
- Queen Victoria, crossing her fingers that a packed program in England wasn’t what killed Franz Liszt: “…I also forgot in each letter saying how grieved we were at old Liszt’s death. Such a distinguished man and so sad that he should be taken after all his successes. But I fear his visit here and all the parties he was asked to killed him” (38).
- Queen Victoria apologizing for not writing to Vicky because she was busy with Hindustani lessons: “…I take a little lesson every evening in Hindustani and sometimes I miss writing by post in consequence. It is a great interest and amusement to me. Young Abdul…teaches me and is a very strict master and a perfect gentleman” (63).
- Vicky, complaining about her daughter’s thinspiration: “You would indeed make me most happy and do me the greatest favour, if you could induce Moretta not to be so foolish about her food. Her one craze is to be thin. She starves completely, touches no milk, no sugar, no bread, no sweets, no soup, no butter, nothing but a scrap of meat and apples which is not enough. She will ruin her health” (88-89).
- Queen Victoria, wondering where Vicky gets her love of tourism and sightseeing: “You are doubtless going about everywhere [in Paris] with an activity and love of seeing things which you certainly have not inherited from me” (123).
- Vicky, critiquing a photo of her mother that wasn’t done well: “…as I admire my dear Mama and want others to see her as I see her, I feel vexed when a portrait does not do her justice or when there is a little fault in the arrangement which spoils the picture or the likeness…There is no reason why a photo should not be a good portrait and a work of art to be quite successful and satisfactory” (194). This goes hand-in-hand with previous quotes I’ve pulled from Vicky where she makes recommendations about showcasing particular pieces of artwork at Hampton Court or Buckingham Palace. She would have made a fantastic museum curator!
Subtitle: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia 1878-1885
Editor: Roger Fulford
Publisher: Evans Brothers Limited London
Available at: Amazon (used)
This is the fifth of six volumes of the correspondence between Queen Victoria and her eldest daughter, Vicky. I’m plowing through the rest of the series, to the complete confusion of my husband who can’t quite understand why I’d rather read dead women’s letters than watch Netflix. But I adore these letters. They’re hilarious, they’re touching, they’re informative...and they’re like an unintentional political history seminar of the late 19th century, all at the same time.
This book covers the years 1878-1885. In this volume, we get marriages among the queen’s older grandkids, and the marriages of her two youngest sons. It ends mid-year in 1885 with Princess Beatrice’s wedding to Prince Henry of Battenberg.
Beatrice was Queen Victoria’s youngest daughter, the one she wanted to keep with her forever as a companion and secretary (read: unpaid servant). The wedding caused a rift between Victoria and one of her oldest friends, Empress Augusta of Germany. The protocol-loving Hohenzollerns loathed the Battenberg family. According to them, Prince Alexander of Hesse’s morganatic marriage to Countess Julie Haucke (later Princess Battenberg) should have made their kids nobodies on the European royal scene. Instead, the kids’ charm and good looks made them pretty much universally admired and respected. Except at the Prussian court, where they were snubbed and gossiped about for, oh, all eternity.
If you need a modern equivalent, imagine a Democrat (Battenberg supporter) trying to talk politics with a Trump supporter (the Hohenzollerns).
Yeah, it was that ugly.
And Beatrice wasn’t the only royal lady who found herself in love with a Battenberg prince. Queen Victoria’s granddaughter, Victoria of Hesse, was the first to marry one. Then her cousin, Moretta (Vicky’s daughter) fell HARD for Sandro Battenberg. But her father, grandfather, and uncle were dead-set against the marriage and even the combined power of Queen Victoria and Vicky couldn’t make it happen. You get an earful in this volume about the absurdity of the Prussian hate for the Battenbergs. I side with Queen Victoria, who wrote, “...if the queen of England thinks a person good enough for her daughter what have other people got to say?” (179).
You Also Get:
- Details on the marriage of Vicky’s oldest son Wilhelm (the future kaiser) to Princess Augusta Victoria (Dona) of Schleswig-Holstein, an underwhelming match. The women praise Dona during the engagement, but it doesn’t take them long to change their tune about her.
- Thoughts on Queen Victoria’s granddaughter, Ella of Hesse, marrying Grand Duke Serge of Russia. Queen Victoria loves Ella to pieces, but hates the idea of sending her to Russia. Vicky tells her she’ll love Serge, but Victoria isn’t so sure. Later, after the wedding, Victoria and Vicky keep tabs on Ella from afar, mentioning rumors of her unhappiness and squashing them.
- The marriage - and subsequent death - of Victoria’s fourth son, Leopold. His wife, Helen, Duchess of Albany, gave birth to Leopold’s son after his death. Victoria is unstinting in her praise for Helen and the way she kept herself together, didn’t give into obsessive grief, and calmly began raising her two kids without a father. I wonder if Victoria praised Helen so highly because she compared Helen’s version of grief with her own...and knew Helen was doing a way better job with it?
- Vicky’s despair when the Duke of Hamilton put his library up for auction at Christie’s. She wanted a particularly valuable copy of a Dante manuscript illustrated by Botticelli to stay in England. She practically begged her mom to do something to get the British Museum to acquire it. It didn’t happen, and the German government bought the manuscript. Were she a modern working royal, I think Vicky would have loved running a museum. She would have loved arranging exhibitions and acquiring new pieces...and I suspect she would have kicked ass at it.
- Queen Victoria’s feelings on what it feels like to give away a daughter in marriage. (Hint: she freaking hates it.) She compares it to a trap, mostly because the poor young bride has no idea what’s coming for her on the wedding night. This is bullshit, because, um, I dunno, you could always, like, TELL HER HOW THAT SHIT WORKS. As much as she raged against the unfairness and horror of it all, Victoria didn’t feel strongly enough about it to try and raise her girls differently.
Amusing Quotes I Picked Just for You
- Vicky, on what it means to her to be a liberal: “My idea of a liberal is simply a commonsense view of things, and a wish to be fair, and tolerant and charitable, and to improve at all times that which wants improving; in fact to try and raise each branch of existence into something as good as it can be made, not to change and destroy things because they are old and traditional nor to preserve what is no longer useful merely because it is old” (93). If I have any sort of political manifesto, which I don’t, it would be something like this.
- Queen Victoria, after an assassination attempt in 1882: “...I literally spent the whole of Friday and likewise of Saturday merely in opening telegrams of which 138 were received on the former day and 68 on the latter; and letters. Anything like the enthusiasm, loyalty, sympathy, and affection shown me is not to be described. It is worth being shot at to see how much one is loved” (115-116). Contrast this with Russia, where Tsar Alexander II had been assassinated one year earlier, and it definitely didn’t bring the people and the monarchy closer.
- Vicky, reporting on Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his new wife, Stephanie of Belgium: “She has grown up into such a tall, handsome creature, with a splendid figure, loads of fair hair, a complexion like milk and roses, lips like coral and such an intelligent expression...She is very lively and wonderfully well-informed and wise for her age reminding me of her poor dear Aunt Charlotte” (125). This is NOT how most people describe Stephanie. Her mother-in-law (and most of the Austrian court) thought she was dumpy, selfish, and boring. Why did Vicky see her so differently? Was Stephanie having a really good day? Was everyone else wrong about her? Or was there one shining moment, while Rudolf might have still been in love with her, where the bloom of reciprocated love turned Stephanie into a stellar example of a future empress?
- Queen Victoria, still justifying the publication of volume 2 of her Highland Journal to Vicky, who still showed little interest: “But second and certainly not least of all - people write about anything now and the amount of false reports, accounts and 'lives' is such that it is not only better but absolutely necessary to give the truth simply and only as much as is thought desirable” (160). In other words, if you want something written right, you have to write it yourself.
- Queen Victoria, on Empress Augusta’s badmouthing Sandro Battenberg: “...I could not understand how she could object so much to the family when she remembered that the father of her own son-in-law and his brothers and sister were the children of a Fraulein Geyersberg, a very bad woman, and that they had been acknowledged by the whole of Europe as Princes of Baden” (180). People, that is a BURN. That is some SHADE THROWN. Of course, Victoria and Vicky would never say that to Augusta’s face. Well, Victoria might - but she’d say it in private, and she’d find a tactful way to do it. I really wish that had happened.
As with every other volume in the series so far, I highly recommended this one.
Subtitle: The Triumph and the Tragedy of European Monarchy 1910-1918
Author: Theo Aronson
Publisher: Thistle Publishing
Year: 1986 (original), 2015 (digital)
Available at: Amazon
As always, Aronson’s books focus on the people instead of the politics. I love that about his books – it played really well in The Coburgs of Belgium, for example. But I think my problem with this book is that it’s too big a topic. There are too many families and characters to do justice to, and the book ends up feeling like a college survey course (and you’re the bored senior finally getting around to taking it).
It’s obvious that plenty of research went into this book – in the opening note, Aronson thanks the Queen Mother and Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone for their memories and impressions. He thanks librarians at a bunch of national libraries and archives. A ton of work went into this book. I respect and admire that, of course. But something in the scope is lacking. As a former boss of mine used to say, the goal of good content is “depthness.” But a survey, by nature, precludes depth. Where does that leave us?
Should You Read This Book?
If you’re brand-new to late 19th and early 20th century history, yes!
If you’re well-versed in the falls of the Hohenzollerns, Habsburgs, and Romanovs, probably not. You’re probably not going to get enough new info to make it worth your time. Unless you’re looking for info on the harder-to-research royals. You know, the ones without a ton of English-language sources, like Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria and King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and King Peter of Serbia. You’ll get a general outline of what happened to them during the war, and a few interesting quotes and tidbits.
The Main Problem with This Book
Overall, I think this book is best for people who know little or nothing about the royal families of Europe during World War I. You get such a cursory look at each one that you won’t get bogged down in the details.
On the other hand, because you don’t get a complete picture of any sovereign’s life, you’re plunged into the story with an incomplete understanding of them as people.
That’s a bit problematic when the storytelling approach focuses on them as people. You don’t get the nuances and the struggles that help explain, for example, why Tsarina Alexandra of Russia kept Rasputin around long after virtually everyone at court was scheming to get rid of him. If you don’t understand Spala, you don’t understand Rasputin. It’s one thing to know that she believed Rasputin could help ease Alexei’s attacks of hemophilia. It’s another to read accounts of what happened at Spala in 1912, when Alexandra had to listen to her child screaming in pain, begging to be put out of his misery. Then you understand why she would never send him away, no matter how many family members advised her to. See the difference?
That being said, there are always interesting tidbits we can glean from Aronson’s good research. Here are my favorite juicy nuggets:
- Just gonna give you the quote and let you absorb the full impact of this: “One poor princess of Saxe-Weimar, on being told that she could not possibly, as a member of a royal family, marry a Jewish banker, promptly shot herself.” Holy shit, right?
- Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria was all set to give a valuable armaments contract to Krupp. But while in Potsdam, Kaiser Wilhelm II slapped him on the ass. Ferdinand was so disturbed by the incident that he gave the armaments contract to a French firm instead.
- According to a British consul-general, King George V couldn’t speak German and could barely speak French. With French being the lingua franca of nobility and royalty, especially in the 1870s when George began his education, I’m surprised at this. Well, okay, maybe only a little surprised. His mom was pretty lax when it came to things like schooling and discipline for the kids.
- Victor Emmanuel III of Italy was kind of a brainiac. Aronson uses an unsourced quote describing him as “the single really learned monarch in Europe.” For example, he talked to a visiting Greek scholar about “some abstruse point on Homer.” He talked to a British Naval Intelligence officer about the Royal Navy and made it clear he knew a lot about them. He was informed, he was easy to talk to, and I kind of wish I could have met him. He probably would have kicked ass at Jeopardy!. OMG, now I can’t stop wishing I could see that.
- This quote about World War I from Count Czernin, Austria’s foreign minister, killed me: “We were bound to die. We were at liberty to choose the manner of our death, and we chose the most terrible.” Gets you right in the feels, doesn't it?
- This vignette matches my feelings about the kaiser’s obsession with military ceremony. Wilhelm II, in an attempt to get Ferdinand of Bulgaria to declare for the Central Powers, said, “If he doesn’t come to his senses, I’ll strike him off the rolls as Honorary Colonel of the Regiment.” What did a member of the Kaiser’s suite say? Pretty much what I would have said: “That would, of course, make him see reason.” HA.
Subtitle: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia 1871-1878
Editor: Roger Fulford
Publisher: Evans Brothers Limited London
Available at: Amazon (used)
The books containing Queen Victoria’s correspondence with her daughter Vicky are like Pringles - once you pop, you can’t stop. This is book 4 in the series of 6 - click here to jump down the page and see what I said about book 3. In this volume, we get to hear about Alfred’s engagement and marriage to a Russian grand duchess, Vicky’s in-law struggles at the Prussian court, the way each woman’s kids disappointed her, and tidbits about the doings of various German princely families (George of Meiningen’s shocking marriage - the scheming Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin - oh my!).
Here are a few highlights of this volume.
Early in this seven-year stretch, Queen Victoria and her daughter Vicky had a serious disagreement over Vicky’s role in her sister Princess Louise’s marriage. It had happened over a year ago, but old wounds were still festering. Vicky had wanted Louise to marry a Prussian prince, but Queen Victoria wouldn’t have it. Louise married a subject, much to Queen Victoria’s delight. (Check out my comments on volume 3 for more on Victoria’s surprisingly liberal beliefs on royal marriage).
The issue came up during the summer of 1872, leading to a serious cooling-off between our two leading ladies. Of course, by “cooling off,” I just mean they were less affectionate toward each other for awhile, and had to agree to disagree on the topic of Louise’s marriage. A portion of the correspondence has not survived (during the period when they were maddest at each other, presumably), so we just get echoes of it here. But it’s interesting as a contrast to the usually effusive demonstrations of sentiment between them.
But the marriage that’s the star of this volume is Prince Alfred’s to Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. In the previous volume, Victoria despaired of Affie - his lack of discipline and respect for her, namely. Here, she and Vicky hope that marriage will settle him down. While Queen Victoria isn’t keen on the idea of a Russian marriage, she ends up liking Maria - and seems a little surprised that Maria likes Affie enough to say yes to the dress.
I’m always on the lookout for tidbits on other European royals. In August of 1874, we get a gem from Queen Victoria when she meets Empress Elisabeth of Austria, famous for her beauty: “The Empress insisted on coming over to see me today. We are all disappointed. A great beauty I cannot call her. She has a beautiful complexion, a splendid figure, and pretty, small eyes and not a very pretty nose. I dare say that in grande tenue with her fine hair seen to advantage she looks much better. I think Alix much prettier than the Empress” (145).
Contrast that with what Vicky had said about Elisabeth in 1873: “The Empress’s beauty seems more marvellous to me each time I see her; it is not the regularity of her face but the most picturesque and striking ensemble which I do not think one can see again, the complexion and colouring, the figure, and the extraordinary hair which is arranged without much taste” (90).
Royal Book Club
As in previous volumes, Queen Victoria and Vicky mention books and authors in passing. Vicky asks her mother if she’s read Wilkie Collins’s The Moonstone and Shut up in Paris by Nathan Sheppard - an American’s account of being trapped in Paris during the siege at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. I kind of want to read Sheppard’s book now.
- On November 7, 1876, Queen Victoria wrote to Vicky to bitch about Bertie having invited the dissolute Prince of Orange to Sandringham. Bertie’s terrible friends are a pet peeve of Victoria’s, and she writes, “I often pray he may never survive me, for I know not what would happen” (231). HOT DAMN. I DID NOT SEE THAT COMING. That’s a serious remark and not one to take lightly. Also, when Victoria talks about being happy Prince Albert is dead because he would hate to see what's happened to some of their kids, this is what she means - Bertie and Affie having dissolute friends, and Leopold selfishly wanting a life of his own. This seems super harsh to me. I mean, who was responsible for teaching the kids to make good decisions in the first place?
- On March 7, 1877, Queen Victoria wrote that she met a man named Jonah Henson, whom she calls “the original of Mrs. Stowe’s 'Uncle Tom'.” He was an 88-year-old former slave who wanted to thank her for “all I had done for the poor, suffering slaves” (243-4). This made me wonder...what did she do for them? I know nothing about the fascinating subtopic of Queen Victoria and slavery.
- See if this scenario reminds you of anything in the news lately...On January 4, 1878, Victoria wrote to Vicky to scold her for reading The Times to get her news about British politics and perspectives during the Russo-Turkish War. Why should Vicky ignore The Times? “Surely you must have known long ago, that The Times is a mere tool in the hands of Russia, takes its inspiration from Count Schouvaloff, is, I believe, even bribed...” (274) Yowza. Talk about your fake news and Russian interference. That shit is old news, apparently.
Amusing Quotes I Picked out for You
- Victoria: “I don't dislike babies, though I think very young ones rather disgusting, and I take interest in those of my children when there are two or three...but when they come at the rate of three a year it becomes a cause of mere anxiety for my own children and of no great interest” (40).
- Vicky: “What thin-skinned, sensitive, imaginative people suffer mentally and bodily is not to be told - and only to be understood by those who are so organized - for to others their sufferings appear all as mere caprices” (159). AMEN, SISTER.
- Victoria: “But you will find as the children grow up that as a rule children are a bitter disappointment - their greatest object being to do precisely what their parents do not wish and have anxiously tried to prevent” (202).
- Vicky: “We were snowed up [on the train] for 5 blessed hours not far from Borsum, and had to be dug out with shovels...The eau de Cologne in my bag in the bottle was frozen to a hard lump!” (172). Pretty sure I would die if were ever that cold. Props to Vicky for not only not dying, but for treating this as simply an amusing anecdote.
I highly recommend getting a hold of this book. You could have some stellar drinking games, were you so inclined. Every time Queen Victoria is disappointed in one of her sons, drink. Every time Vicky despairs about the terrible influence of old-fashioned Wilhelm I on her sons’ education, drink. Every time Queen Victoria mentions her distrust of the Russians, drink. You’d be hammered pretty fast.
Author: Nancy Goldstone
Publisher: Back Bay Books (reprint edition)
Available at: Amazon
I picked this up because I’ve read two other titles from Goldstone and enjoyed them both. This one is my favorite, though. It’s an easy read that goes into just enough depth on the four women portrayed. Even better? It’s a history book that’s written to be (gasp) enjoyed.
Setting the Scene
Let’s start by introducing the Winter Queen. She was Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. Her brothers were the unlucky Stuart kings Charles I and James II. She was married off to a minor German princeling, Friedrich V of the Palatinate, with the expectation that he might someday become King of Bohemia (long story).
The Bohemian adventure (read: fiasco) didn't work out the way Elizabeth and Friedrich wanted - which meant their four daughters grew up in exile in The Hague. Goldstone tells their stories in chronological order, so you get plenty of background on their mother before alternating chapters take you through the sisters’ lives. It’s all done very well, with lots of reminders and cues, so don’t worry about being confused. It’s easy to follow and written in a very relatable, almost chatty style.
An Interesting Discovery
In its early chapters, this book makes one chilling point about King James I: he was a dick.
He’d promise anything to get what he wanted (yeah, kiddo, I’ll totally help you and your husband take the Bohemian throne...all in, rah rah Protestantism, screw the Holy Roman Empire). But when it came time to make good on that promise, dude was nowhere to be found (erm, yeah, well, you know, they’re doing a Sopranos marathon on HBO, and I’m kinda busy right now, so maybe later we can talk again about that whole Bohemian throne thing and gosh, it’s such a pain in the ass to do things like send soldiers and money and I didn’t really think you’d actually ever press me on this, so let’s just pretend you never said anything, mmmkay?). He cannot be trusted.
Meet the Cast
And now, I’ll introduce you to Elizabeth Stuart’s daughters. If you’re at all interested, Goldstone’s book is a winner as a starting point to learn more.
- Elizabeth became a scholar, striking up a heartwarming friendship with René Descartes. The excerpts from their letters to each other are so charming. It made me wish I had a pen pal. It’s a cross between the intellectual connection of Heloise and Abelard and the playfulness and affection of Carrie Bradshaw and Stanford Blach.
- Louise Hollandine became a painter of renown, trained by Gerard van Honthorst. Plagued by scandalous rumors and hating the empty, vapid life of her mother's court, she struck out on her own in a way that her mother considered a betrayal.
- Henrietta Maria doesn’t get much play in this book because she died young. But she made a significant marriage that sprang from her parents’ efforts to recover the throne of Bohemia. Who knows what she might have done or become had she survived?
- Sophia is the wittiest and liveliest of the sisters. She wrote memoirs that Goldstone quotes liberally, so she feels the most alive and knowable as a character. She was whip-smart, a dedicated wife through a turbulent and strange marriage, and eventually became the heir to the British throne. She missed becoming queen by a matter of days. That kills me, you guys. Sophia would have kicked ass at being queen of, honestly, anything. Queen Elizabeth II is Sophia’s 8x great-granddaughter (if I did my math right!).
Aaaand, because I’m me, you know there were a couple small things that bothered me. There always are. None of them are dealbreakers in terms of enjoying the book. I only mention them for the sake of completeness.
- Those witty authorial asides? I got a little tired of them. Some of them started feeling forced.
- Goldstone tries hard to get Mary, Queen of Scots (the Winter Queen’s grandmother) into the story, but Mary has little-to-nothing to do with her great-granddaughters. The book begins with Mary’s execution, and in the final chapter, Goldstone says the Winter Queen’s daughters carried on Mary’s legacy. But since the book isn’t about Mary, there’s no discussion of that legacy other than the accident of a shared bloodline...and like I said, three of these four ladies outshone Mary in terms of their intellect, behavior, and life choices. You could make a case for Louise Hollandine carrying on at least a part of Mary’s legacy - once you the read the book, you’see why. But overall, Mary seems like a dead weight to the story. These women have remarkable achievements. Let them stand - and shine - on their own.
For Writers and Historians
There’s one more thing I want to mention about this book, although it really only matters to writers. It doesn’t look like Goldstone did any archival research for this book. There are plenty of primary sources in the bibliography, but they’re all previously published and readily available to anyone with the patience to (a) find them and (b) sift through them.
This makes me very happy.
Why? Because I’m trying to do the same thing. This book proves you can write a compelling, entertaining, and thoroughly researched book without doing archival research. Me, because I’m just an amateur and have zero connections. Goldstone, because she didn’t need specialized archival research to in order to write this accessible, popular history.
Note to self: If Goldstone did it, so can you.
Subtitle: The Uncommon Life of Wallis Simpson
Author: Greg King
Publisher: Citadel Press
Year: 2011 (digital edition)
Available at: Amazon
In a nutshell, this book presents a revised look at Wallis’s life. Instead of the golddigger motif, we see her as an abused spouse (courtesy of her first husband, Earl Winfield Spencer), a woman whose head got turned by high society and powerful friends (courtesy of the Prince of Wales), and finally, as a woman who had to take sole responsibility for a man who’d grown up expecting a great destiny, with every moment of his life guided and filled for him. Even if you love someone, that shit is exhausting.
So, here’s the million-dollar question: was the abdication Wallis’s fault?
Not in King’s version. When shit got real, she left England, she left David, and she told him that no matter what he did, he should NOT abdicate. She had never planned on marrying him. She didn’t want to marry him. Being a royal mistress would have been fine for her, until David got bored and moved on.
But Wallis didn’t count on David’s stubbornness – or the depth of his love for her. In this version, David stubbornly refused any sort of compromise that didn’t end with their marriage.
And you know what? It feels right. David was a selfish man, raised with a belief in his own importance. I find it totally believable that he walked away from a throne for two reasons: love, natch, but also because he couldn’t get his way. The prime minister at the time, Name, also had a fair hand in shutting down any sort of compromise David offered, including a morganatic marriage.
Okay, so I totally buy King’s revised version of the abdication story.
Which means the true tragedy of this book isn’t the fact that Edward VIII didn’t get to remain a king.
It’s the fact that – in this telling – the blind hatred of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and to a lesser degree, Queen Elizabeth II, basically ruined David and Wallis’s chances for purpose, fulfillment, and the life they could have led.
Mary and Elizabeth refused to receive Wallis. They prodded King George VI to take illegal action to deny her the style of “Her Royal Highness.” Because that was basically David’s condition for returning to England after a suitable period of exile, his mother and sister-in-law effectively barred him from his homeland forever. David was never able to return to England for more than a quick, unofficial visit. Or have a normal relationship with any of his other brothers (especially his favorite, George).
Of course, if he’d gotten over the sticking point of Wallis’s HRH, maybe things could have loosened up a bit. But he couldn’t. And neither could Mary and Elizabeth. Everyone dug in their heels, refused to see the other side’s argument, and tore apart a family for, oh, decades. It’s not a good look on anyone. They all come off looking like jerks, honestly.
It’s interesting that Wallis doesn’t rate much of a mention in Shawcross’s official biography of Queen Elizabeth. The woman herself is pushed down below the official version of history, to keep Shawcross out of uncomfortable territory. But according to King, Elizabeth held Wallis personally responsible for her husband becoming king – and the accompanying stress that aged him and, in her mind, killed him. Never mind the non-stop chain smoking. That had no effect. It was Wallis. Totally all Wallis.
If you believe King’s version, Queen Elizabeth’s anger became a cold hatred that was passed down to her daughters. And since Elizabeth outlived David and Wallis, it meant they never got any hint of human warmth from the royal family as long as they lived. It’s a sad story. It feels so petty. Mary and Elizabeth’s hatred of Wallis gave her and David such superhuman importance. As if by letting him back into the country, the power of his potential popularity would undermine George VI’s rule and destroy the monarchy itself.
News flash: If the monarchy is that tenuous, you’re in deep shit. Deeper shit than can be caused – or fixed – by one person.
It sounds like this is all about David. What about Wallis?
It’s not all about David, don’t worry. You just can’t explain the great tragedy of their lives without him and his family. There’s plenty about Wallis here – how she evolved her look, what influenced her style, what she felt about that infamous trip to Germany, what she did in the Bahamas during David’s posting there.
That last bit is where Wallis shines, almost in spite of herself.
King really goes to bat for her here. He describes her 12+ hour days, working to establish canteens and hospital facilities for soldiers. She was always working on something, whether it was soup kitchens for the poor of Nassau or buying Christmas presents for soldiers and staff. Unfortunately, it’s hard to disguise the reason for Wallis’s manic public service – she and David hated the posting in the Bahamas so much that the only way not to get through it was to stay so busy there wasn’t time to hate it.
Not the greatest optics there, but the general public didn’t know how they felt, so it seemed genuine. It was genuine, to a point.
That’s how so much of this story feels – David and Wallis did a lot of good things, but there’s also a fair amount selfishness and cluelessness behind it. A lady I used to work with once told me, “Oh, honey, you never really grow up until you have kids.” As someone without kids who does not want them, I have to wonder if there’s some truth to this regarding David and Wallis. I wonder how their lives and feelings might have changed if they knew they were leaving something – someone – behind in this world. One of the unanswered “what ifs” of history…
<h3>Should you read this book?</h3>
Even if you have no stake in the pro-Wallis or anti-Wallis argument, it’s a fascinating look behind the scenes at the 20th century’s most famous love story.
However, I do have one caveat.
As much as I enjoyed this book and respect King, I think there’s a bit we’re not being told. For example, toward the end of the book, he tells us about an incident where Wallis fired one of the staff – Sydney Johnson, a black man who’d been with them since he was 14 years old, hired during their posting in Nassau during World War II. His wife had recently died and he had to take care of the kids after work. One day, he asked if he could leave early since he hadn’t been able to find a babysitter. Johnson said that Wallis told him if he left, he shouldn’t come back. So he left, and didn’t come back…after 32 years of working for her.
This incident is typically used to show how selfish and heartless Wallis was. King tries to add some complexity to the event – but what he tells us only makes me think worse of her (in this particular incident) and adds a layer to her personality that’s not flattering.
So what’s this extra layer of complexity? Apparently, Wallis was already upset with Johnson over his marriage. He, a black man, had married a white woman and Wallis didn’t approve. So there had already been some tension and maybe even some harsh words in the household over this. When Wallis told him not to come back, it might have been the culmination of a longer issue with Johnson (or the product of Wallis’s increasing forgetfulness and erratic behavior).
OH, OKAY. Is that supposed to make me think better of her?
I’m harping on this one issue because it’s the one that sticks out most in my mind. The issue of race didn’t really come up in the book, and it made me wonder what King left out that was unflattering. I totally get that his point with this book was to correct bad information about Wallis, but unless I have full confidence that he’s giving me an honest, three-dimensional portrait, I have to be as suspicious about King’s work as I am about the worst of her detractors. It’s not a dealbreaker, but it does make me wonder what King found but left out because it was unflattering.
That being said, this is a very entertaining and engaging read. Well worth your time.
Author: Christine Sutherland
Publisher: Farrar, Straus & Giroux
Available at: Amazon
Who Is Marthe Bibesco?
Born Marthe Lahovary, the future Princess Bibesco had a very interesting lineage. Her father’s family, the Lahovarys, were bureaucrats and businessmen who looked to France for inspiration when it came to education and style. Originally from Antioch, they’d learned how to do business in Constantinople. A cousin was appointed Hospodar of Wallachia, sending the family from the big city into the Romanian countryside. When the Ottoman Empire lost its grip on the Balkans, the Lahovarys made a killing in the newly independent country of Romania (now ruled by a Hohenzollern). Her mother was a Mavrocordato, another family with roots in Asia Minor. More recently, Alexander Mavrocordato had befriended Byron and Shelley during the Greek War for Independence. Bottom line, Marthe came from a rich, cultured background – not royal, not even noble, but full of people who knew how to use their brains and make money.
At the ripe of old age of sixteen, Marthe was married to Prince George Bibesco – dashing, handsome, rich, and apparently, an asshole. He had hoes in different area codes, as the song says, and had no plans on changing his lifestyle just because he’d married. According to Sutherland, he pretty much raped Marthe on their wedding night. “The physical union of two people is like murder,” Marthe later wrote. “All at once is obliterated; no identity remains except pain” (26). It hurts just reading those lines.
Despite this rocky beginning, Marthe became one of the most celebrated women of her time. Aside from being drop-dead gorgeous, she was a renowned writer, a sparkling conversationalist, a great party guest, and an even better hostess. She had a knack for making connections – befriending Crown Princess Marie of Romania (a granddaughter of Queen Victoria), and later, Marie’s husband, the future King Ferdinand of Romania. She hobnobbed with duchesses, became pen pals with prime ministers, and generally held her own among the top writers of the early 20th century. All of this played out against the personal backdrop of a turbulent marriage (with its share of tender moments) and the larger historical backdrop of two world wars.
Enchantress is a fascinating read – there are TONS of tidbits about Marthe’s interactions with royals I’m interested in. She was one of those women who charmed the socks off men, but had a bit more trouble forming close female friendships. She never got along with Romanian hostess/writer Helene Vacarescu or her French cousin, Anna de Noailles. Her friendship with Queen Marie of Romania turned a little sour after World War I, when Marthe used her German connections to get in and out of Romania safely. Since Romania had sided with the Allies, Marthe’s coziness with Germans and Austrians didn’t look good on the Bucharest social scene. All of these aspects make her personality fascinating – but lead me to the one major caveat I have for this book.
What You Won’t Find in This Book
So, let’s talk about the elephant in the room – this biography isn’t giving us a balanced viewpoint of Marthe. It’s definitely putting Marthe in the best light possible.
How can you tell? Because Sutherland doesn’t criticize her – the most you’ll see is something like “admittedly, she could have made a better decision” or “she had no choice.” She does admit that Marthe was not an engaged or caring mother when her only daughter, Valentine, was little. But then she blames it on Marthe’s horrible wedding night and the trauma of having a baby so young. There’s a lot of trauma there, I agree – but Marthe’s own mother was distant when she was a girl, so she knew what that was like, and how damaging it was to a girl’s psyche. She still couldn’t overcome her distaste for motherhood, despite knowing the effect it would have on her daughter – which is an unflattering aspect of her personality that we don’t get a lot of info on here.
Similarly, when Marthe does stuff like flirt and hold hands with married men, it’s painted as a harmless situation because there was probably no physical affair. Sutherland pretty much ignores any emotional carnage that followed Marthe across Europe. We’re given brief one-line hints that, say, Crown Princess Cecilie is getting a little worried, or that Marie of Romania has publicly shrugged off the gossip about Marthe and her husband. I can’t help but wonder if there’s more to the story.
To be fair, Sutherland admits that she and Hannah Pakula (who wrote about Marthe in her biography of Queen Marie of Romania) see Marthe differently. It makes me want to go back and re-read Pakula’s book to get that different viewpoint. I think hearing some criticism of Marthe would have made this book stronger, not weaker.
To get an idea of what kind of emotional carnage I’m talking about, let’s go through a quick list of dudes she had affairs with (platonic and/or physical):
King Ferdinand of Romania
King Alfonso XIII of Spain
Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany
Charles-Louis de Beauveau-Craon
Henry Bertrand Léon de Jouvenel (Colette’s husband)
Ramsay MacDonald (prime minister of Great Britain)
Don’t tell me there wasn’t more fallout from each of these. I would have liked to know more about this – not to slut-shame Marthe (far from it). I just think that information would have let us get to know Marthe and her world even better.
UPDATE: So, after a bit of Googling for something else entirely, I stumbled on a letter Katherine Mansfield wrote to Marthe in 1921 - asking her to stop writing love letters to her husband. You can see that letter here - it’s a doozy. Also, Katherine Mansfield tells Marthe she is very young. Marthe was 35 years old. This made me smile. But this is exactly what I’m talking about. This book doesn’t tell us anything about this incident - or how Marthe reacted. I’d really like to know.
So...Should You Read This Book?
It’s the only English-language biography of Marthe, so if you’re at all interested in the beau monde of the early 20th century, this is a great resource. It’s also a great read – I tore through this in 2 or 3 sittings because it was so interesting.
A Few Interesting Tidbits
Honestly, this book is full of interesting bits. But here are ones that really stuck with me.
- Marthe’s cousin-by-marriage, Antoine, lived in London – and fell in love with the Duchess of Westminster, Edwina Cornwallis-West (I wrote about her and the Westminster kokoshnik tiara here). It didn’t work out – but Antoine would later marry an Asquith.
- The Russian ambassador to France, Alexander Izvolsky, asked Marthe to try to help arrange a marriage between Prince Carol of Romania and one of Tsar Nicholas II’s daughters. Marthe passed the suggestion to her father, got Crown Princess Marie of Romania on board, and generally helped make the Russian visit to Constantsa happen…where the grand duchesses (all of them) realized they didn’t want to marry Carol and it ended up being a big waste of time.
- Between the world wars, in need of money, Marthe turned to writing pulp fiction to make a quick buck. She wrote potboiler romances under the name Lucile Decaux. Her most popular book as Lucile? Katia, about Tsar Alexander II of Russia’s morganatic wife. In 1938, it was made into a French film starring Danielle Darrieux and John Loder.
- Marthe met and liked Alice Roosevelt Longworth, who at the time had just written a memoir. Marthe and Alice spent a weekend hanging out in Oyster Bay. Seeing how people hung on Alice’s every word, Marthe straight-up asked Alice why she didn’t run for the Senate. “I can talk, but I cannot speak,” Alice said (226).
- In 1936, the French magazine Illustration asked Marthe to attend the funeral of King George V and write an article about it for them. A few months later, she was back in London and had dinner at Philip Sassoon’s house with King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson. “He would rather abdicate than be separated from her,” she told Sassoon that night (235).
Other Interesting People Marthe Knew
As if you needed more reason to read this book...
- Marcel Proust
- Maxim Gorky
- Wilbur Wright
- Howard Carter
- Edith Wharton
- Winston Churchill
- Sir Philip Sassoon
- Aristide Briand
- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
- Lady Londonderry
- Charles & Anne Lindbergh
- Charles de Gaulle
See? I told you this was a who’s who of Europe's beau monde.
Author: Christian Ludwig Herzog zu Mecklenburg
Publisher: Stock & Stein
Available at: ABEBooks.co.uk
I bought this book when I decided to dig into the history of Grand Duchess Alexandra of Mecklenburg-Schwerin’s diamond and aquamarine tiara. Her son, Christian Ludwig, wrote this memoir about his youth in Mecklenburg, his experience in World War II, his years in Soviet captivity after the war, and his return visits to Mecklenburg in the ’80s, ’90s, and beyond. It’s a fascinating story, with lots of information about the family...and some crazy wartime and post-war experiences (Dunkirk, the plot to assassinate Hitler, and capture by the Soviets, to name a few). And in one hilarious moment, when his Soviet captors ask him to sign his own sentencing document, Christian Ludwig refuses. When he asks to talk to an ambassador, a lawyer, anyone, all his requests are met with refusals. So he goes for broke... “Let’s call Stalin,” he says.
“That is impossible,” his captor says.
And Christian Ludwig slays with his response: “Oh, I assure you it’s possible - such a call can be made quite easily over the telephone.”
HA. Can’t you just imagine the movie version of this scene, with Tom Hiddleston or Benedict Cumberbatch as Christian Ludwig?
Like with many family histories, this book only happened because a younger relative stuck a tape recorder in an elderly man’s face and asked him to start talking. Christian Ludwig, born in 1912, was in his 80s when his nephew, Prince Ludwig of Baden, asked him to tell his story. Later, in 1990, those memories became the rough draft of a book with the help of Dr. Liselotte Davis. But it wasn’t until 1996 that the book was finished. I think it was worth the wait.
Yes, this book is in German. No, I don’t read German. I scanned it and used AI translation, so although I got the gist of the story, any verve or poetry in the original language was probably garbled away. So I can only tell you about the bare facts, not whether it’s a work of literary achievement.
Christian Ludwig’s Story
Christian Ludwig was only six years old when his father, Grand Duke Friedrich Franz IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, abdicated. But after a brief exile in Denmark, the family returned to Mecklenburg, where they stayed through World War II. If you’re wondering what it was like to grow up in a princely family, you get plenty of detail about palaces, servants, hunting lodges, governesses, holidays, schooling, and more.
In 1939, at the outbreak of World War II, Christian Ludwig was called up for military service. He was sent on the march through Poland to Warsaw, then dispatched to the Western Front, where he ended up chasing the British Expeditionary Force to Dunkirk. Then, after a stint as an instructor at a cavalry school for officers, he was sent to the Eastern Front.
He marched with the army across the Soviet border in 1941, when Hitler pulled a sneak attack on Stalin. He was still on the Eastern Front in 1944, when the men behind Operation Valkyrie failed to assassinate Hitler. No longer trusting aristocrats in the Wehrmacht, Hitler ordered all royal officers out of the army.
Christian Ludwig went home to Ludwigslust...where he stayed through the Soviet invasion in the spring of 1945. I’m not sure why he didn’t flee with the rest of his family - he only mentions a vague need to wait out the situation and see what happened. Inevitably, he stuck around too long and the Soviets arrested him. Thus began an 8.5-year captivity that took him from Ludwigslust through a cavalcade of Soviet prisons: Lubyanka, Butyrskaya, Vladimir.
Finally, after Stalin’s death, he was released. He returned home to the family who’d been told he was dead. He married Princess Barbara of Hesse and by Rhine, a granddaughter of the kaiser’s brother. Later, as the communist East German republic began to crumble, Christian Ludwig was able to go back and visit his childhood homes, doing what he could to help preserve and protect them. It’s a wild story - one that seems ripe for a movie script. Get a load of some of these highlights.
The Most Interesting Tidbits
Honestly, this book is full of interesting bits. But here are ones that really stuck with me.
- His mom never passed a driving test. Other forms of transportation were no problem. She could ride side saddle, and drove her own horse and dog carts. But cars? Nope. Christian Ludwig says she ended up in the bushes every time. Not so her sister-in-law, Queen Alexandrine of Denmark. Alexandrine drove a car on her own, no chauffeur, no lady-in-waiting, no nothing. Rock on, Alexandrine.
- His cousin, the future king of Denmark, loved to conduct. He “conducted” his mom, Queen Alexandrine of Denmark, at the piano. Later in life, he conducted several Wagner operas in Copenhagen.
- He was part of the invasion of France in 1940. His division crossed from Germany into Holland, invaded Belgium, and followed the retreating English forces to the channel coast. According to my DeepL translation, here’s how he tells it: “Gradually we came close to the channel coast, where the English had retreated to in order to save themselves on their island. All the English troops had gathered there. Strangely enough, we were ordered to proceed only up to a certain line. We were also not to shoot at the English in this cauldron on the beach and the small town that lay in the area. Later it was claimed that Hitler had tried to persuade England to conclude a peace treaty by this gesture.”
- It’s a small world after all. Christian Ludwig was transferred to Poland with the 131st Infantry Division in anticipation of Hitler’s sneak attack on Stalin. On the day of the attack, he met Christa Salm’s son, First Lieutenant Prince zu Salm-Salm (you know “Christa Salm” as Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria-Teschen - I wrote about her sister and their family in this post).
- He was still on the Eastern front in July of 1944, when a group of officers tried to assassinate Hitler in Germany. A few days later, he heard that his Chief of Staff, Major General von Tresckow, had been killed at the front. It made no sense because the Commander-in-Chief and the Chief of Staff weren’t allowed to be at the front at the same time...and the Commander-In-Chief was already there. What gives? According to a report filed by Major Joachim Kuhn (who’d recovered the body), the two men had gone to the front and stopped on a hill to observe a battle below. Von Tresckow got shot, so Kuhn brought the body back to headquarters. But Tresckow’s injuries didn't match that story - his head was blown to bits, and there wasn’t a bullet hole in him.
Well, turns out, von Tresckow was one of the conspirators in the plot to kill Hitler - he’d tested the explosives used at Hitler’s headquarters. Out there, on the hill, von Tresckow had killed himself with grenades. Kuhn lied about there being a battle to cover up the suicide.
Later, as a Soviet captive in Butyrskaya, Christian Ludwig was imprisoned with Kuhn for a few days. Kuhn told him that his original plan had been to flee with von Tresckow to Poland or Scandinavia. Von Tresckow had refused and killed himself with grenades. After bringing back the body, Kuhn learned he was about to be arrested...and ran. He hid with some friendly Poles, but was eventually captured by the Soviets. (Kuhn later said that by fleeing and running across the front line, he was trying to commit the war version of suicide-by-cop.)
If Christian Ludwig escaped, he promised to contact Kuhn’s previous fiancee, Countess Marie Gabriele von Stauffenberg (a cousin of the main conspirator...Tom Cruise’s character in Valkyrie). Christian Ludwig was true to his promise, and went to see Marie Gabriele after his release. Kuhn was released in 1955.
What I Wish the Book Had More Of
Thoughts. Feelings. Emotions.
It’s a very readable recap, with lots of dates and details that I crave as an amateur historian. I mean, dude, I can’t remember what I had for breakfast yesterday, but Christian Ludwig can remember the half-dozen places he was held captive and the dates for each one.
On the other hand, there’s very little about his motivations, his thoughts, his fears, etc. For example, why the hell did he stick around in Ludwigslust so long after the Soviet arrival? Once their commanding officer moved in, it had to be clear they weren’t going to just hand back the schloss. What was to be gained by sticking around? He doesn’t tell us.
He doesn’t even mention the death of his mother, even though that was 9 years after he was released from captivity. The death of his father rated a line or two, but he was in the Soviets’ clutches by then and clearly had bigger problems. His mother is a strangely distant figure in the entire story. She’s there, but not there, if you know what I mean. So although this book helped me make an outline of Grand Duchess Alexandra’s life, it didn’t tell me much about who she was. Like so many royal women, it’s frustratingly hard to find her voice and get a sense of the woman behind the tiara.
But considering what a wild ride Christian Ludwig’s life was, I’m grateful he wrote this book. And totally glad I struggled with the scanning and AI translation. It was worth it.
Author: Lennart Bernadotte
Publisher: Bonniers Grafiska Industrier
Available at: Archive.org
In my never-ending search for tidbits on Fritz and Hilda of Baden, I decided to look for this memoir by Fritz’s grand-nephew. I Googled it and, lo and behold, there was a copy available to check out from the Archive.org lending library.
I know there’s a huge controversy in the writing world about this lending library. The argument from authors? It’s essentially piracy, robbing us of profits from our hard work. The argument from, well, me? The author never gets paid when you buy a secondhand book, so if a book is no longer in print and can only be purchased secondhand, why not make it available to borrow for free in digital format? That lets you figure out if it’s a book you want to buy and keep forever.
I didn’t mean to turn this into a political statement. It’s supposed to be about Lennart – and his fantastic book. Even with a shitty AI translation, his prose shines.
The book opens with Lennart’s recurring nightmare. He finds himself alone in creepy-ass Stockholm Castle. He has to make his way in the dark through the entire winding castle, toward a room he knows well. A sense of horror builds as he enters a long, dark hallway. Suddenly, a wheelchair slides through the doorway and heads straight for him. There’s someone in it – the dead, decaying body of an old woman. He jumps aside to avoid the wheelchair and ends up in a room with a body on the bed. It’s his grandmother’s dead body. But then she’s not dead – she’s trying to get up and open her eyes. Lennart screams – and wakes up in Schloss Mainau, his home.
No wonder he had nightmares – his early years sucked.
His parents were Prince Wilhelm of Sweden and Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (the Younger). He was born in Stockholm in 1909. But Marie bails in late 1913, so he’s raised by his grandmother, Queen Victoria of Sweden. And boy howdy, was she strict. Sometimes terrifying. Always stultifying. There were a few bright spots and moments of levity, but overall, poor Lennart was always being told what to do, what not to do, how to think, how to behave, and everything he was told runs counter to what a lonely little boy probably should be doing. No loud playing, no outside friends, that sort of thing.
This memoir is the story of his life up to his marriage. If you want to know what it’s like to grow up royal, this is a good example.
Dad. Wilhelm, second son of King Gustav V and Queen Victoria. He was a naval man who refused to ever get on a horse. He said, “the horse is a square animal with an unstable leg in every corner.” I find this hilarious. Later, he developed a close relationship with Lennart based on shared love of nature and writing.
Mom. Maria Pavlovna, daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia. She’s…interesting. I want to like her so bad, but I just…can’t. I know she had a shitty childhood (her father abandoned Maria and her brother to make a morganatic marriage). I know she put her heart into nursing during WWI and escaped with nothing and worked hard to start her Russian embroidery business in Paris. But she was also ridiculously self-absorbed. She cared very little for anyone else’s feelings, with the sole exception of Dmitri, her little brother. She does not come off well in this book.
Nenne. His nanny, Olga Sjöberg, who stayed with him until her death in 1942. At first, she represented calm and security; later, she came to represent the court’s strict hold on him.
Amama. Lennart’s grandma, Queen Victoria of Sweden. Lennart writes about it almost as a tragedy, being raised by someone 25 years older than his parents who didn’t understand how the world had changed and modernized. He never doubted her good intentions, but her rigid, unbending rules did him more harm than good. She was glacial, distant, unbending, unfailingly correct – but out of a sense of strict duty, love, dignity, and Christian faith. She was also a surprisingly good artist and a damn good piano player. Lennart wrote, “When I relive my grandmother like this in the long run, I'm not really sure if I liked her or was just afraid of her.”
Grandpa. King Gustav V of Sweden. An inveterate chain-smoker who refused to quit, even to help his wife’s chronic emphysema. He liked man-jewelry, red wine, fast cars, slang, tennis, hunting, and winning at card games. He got pissed if anyone but the grandkids beat him.
Uncle Gusty. Oldest son of King Gustav V and Queen Victoria, the future Gustav VI Adolf. He and his wife, Daisy (Princess Margaret of Connaught) took care of Lennart for two summers during World War I while Victoria was traveling. Later in life, Gustav would try to keep Lennart from marrying a commoner, the woman he loved. He does not come off well in the second half of this book.
Karin Nissvandt. His wife, a commoner – and his childhood sweetheart. The couple got engaged in 1931 and were married despite pressure from the Swedish royal family to break up, and eventually moved to Mainau Castle, which had been left to Lennart by Victoria. Turns out, they got divorced…but in this book, she’s the woman he loves who behaves honorably towards his family even when they don’t repay the favor.
- In the middle of her wedding dinner, Maria Pavlovna took off the heavy-ass diamond earrings all Romanov brides wear and hung them on the edge of a wine glass.
- The new residence for Wilhelm and Maria – Oakhill – was built using Maria’s money. Its construction and maintenance had to come from her dowry - that much was included in the marriage contract. It later became the Italian embassy.
- Lennart hated pearls his entire life. Why? He thought it was because, as a very young child, Maria used to sit in a chair and lean over him to read to him at night. Her long pearl necklaces were always in his face. He said pearls remind him of “disgusting mucus balls.”
- Maria was a little too wild and undisciplined for the strict Swedish court. Exhibit A – she used to ride a silver tray down the stairs at Oakhill. Once, she came flying out of the hall and almost ran Lennart over. Another time, she tried to push a lawnmower while the gardener watched, embarrassed.
- Maria took Lennart to Russia in 1913, for the Romanov tercentary. His only memory of the imperial family was of the four girls. When he was playing with them, they suddenly all took off their hair – and stood there laughing, completely bald. They had all had typhus and lost their hair. Their heads had been shaved and they were all wearing wigs.
- Wilhelm brought Lennart back a lion cub after he took a hunting/safari trip to Africa for Christmas 1913. Lennart befriended the cub, named Simba, and says he loved the water…but then he also decided he liked climbing onto people’s backs. Nope. They had to donate Simba to the Copenhagen zoo.
- In the family, Lennart’s great-grandparents had nicknames. Grand Duchess Luise of Baden was “Aunt God-Commanded” and Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden was “Uncle As-You-Wish-Luise.”
- Amama (Victoria) was a control freak and a backseat driver. Plus she was tall - she had a specially built Mercedes with an elevated ceiling so she could sit in the back seat while wearing a big hat. That Mercedes also had special signaling buttons she could control from the backseat. It was the driver’s job just to drive and obey her signals.
- Victoria had chronic pulmonary emphysema and was subject to intense coughing fits at any moment. Her husband refused to quit smoking around her. The doctors even recommended that she try to smoke a little so her lungs could get used to the smoke. It didn’t work.
- Because Victoria’s hands often hurt, she had a typewriter for composing letters. She let Lennart play on it, and he hammered out silly letter combinations to make fake words. They used one of them as a greeting for years afterward. “Quits maghé” - how sweet is that?
- Victoria was a wonderful storyteller. She had a running serial, a sort of never-ending fairy tale, that started one winter evening at Stockholm Castle and lasted for years. She also loved Alice in Wonderland – but Lennart hated it, not always able to distinguish between fact and fantasy and thus terrified by the Red Queen and her frequent executions.
- In April 1915, Victoria took Lennart to visit her mother in Baden, during World War I. They went again in 1916, and Lennart wanted to go to the circus for his seventh birthday. So they got him tickets for a Sunday matinee. But on Friday, he was so sick that the doctor said he wasn’t allowed to go. Well, that Sunday afternoon, there was an Allied bombing raid and two bombs hit the Karlsruhe circus. About 100 kids were killed.
- After World War I, Prince Wilhelm built a house in the south of France in Eze – that’s exactly where dowager Grand Duchess Anastasia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin also had a house at this time.
- Much later in life, Lennart and his mother formed a sort of tenuous relationship in Argentina. She told him her life story from her perspective, which basically made herself out to be a blameless romantic heroine (dudes just wouldn’t stop falling in love with her and women just wouldn’t stop being jealous of her, according to Maria). But there’s something more serious here, too. She claims that Victoria’s doctor-friend Axel Munthe assaulted her. What does “assault” mean in this case? All interpretations are terrible, but Lennart (and possibly Maria, when she told the story) draws a deliberate veil over the end of that particular story. Understandably so. But that means we don’t know whether the assault consisted of groping, a kiss, an attempted rape, a rape, etc. It doesn’t excuse her behavior – at least not for me. But it’s a horrible thing that could clearly push someone over the edge into leaving a situation she already wasn’t happy with.
Should You Read This Book?
Yes, 100% – if you read Swedish.
If you don’t (like me), it’s a long slog but I think it’s worth it. You have to really want to keep going once you cut and paste your thousandth sentence.
I translated this book using a combination of Google Translate and Microsoft Translate. It’s weird how the sentences one AI mangles, the other can often untangle. It’s no way to get a sense of literary merit – it’s just a way to read for comprehension and facts. That being said, some of Lennart Bernadotte’s artistry shines through. I think he would have been a fun guy to have a beer with.
Editor: Princesse Radziwill (née Castellane)
Publisher: Charles Scribner’s Sons
Available at: Archive.org (free)
Although this volume opens in Paris in 1831, it mostly covers her time in England while her great-uncle/lover Talleyrand was the French Ambassador to the Court of St. James. And the word “memoir” is a little misleading in this case. These three volumes are compilations of notes she made and fragments of letters she wrote to Adolphe de Bacourt, later compiled and edited by her granddaughter.
What Do We Learn about the Duchesse de Dino?
Well, she’s no feminist. I realize it’s unfair to use that word since neither the word nor the concept existed in the early-mid 19th century. But it’s hard to escape her sense that women have little to no place in the political scene of the day.
Rather than harp on this, I’ll just show you what I’m talking about.
Here's a direct quote: “A propos of the state of England, and of the complications which will arise there owing to the age and sex of the heir to the throne, His Majesty [William IV] said, ”What a deplorable thing it is to see all these little girl Kings in a time like the present!” He went on to a dissertation full of real eloquence on the disadvantages of female rule, then suddenly stopped with a polite phrase and a sort of apology which was quite unnecessary. So I said that I thought that what M. de Talleyrand said of wits was true of women, “they were useful for anything but sufficient for nothing” (167).
So…Who Did She Write About?
Lots of people! Here are a few highlights:
- Her frenemy, Madame de Lieven, the wife of the Russian ambassador. Madame was convinced of the infallibility of her charm and appeal, but was a great source of gossip for Dorothea and for us. Her husband was recalled in 1834 when Tsar Nicholas I appointed him governor to his son, Grand Duke Alexander Nikolaevich (Sasha). They had been in England for 22 years.
- King William IV: “…he made several remarkable speeches in French, and I hear that, when the ladies had gone, the grossness of his conversation was beyond belief” (4).
- The Duke of Wellington: “...he forgets nothing and never exaggerates; and if there is something a trifle abrupt, a little dry and military in his conversation, what he says is nevertheless attractive owing to its naturalness, its fairness, and the perfect good manners with which he says it. His manners are indeed excellent, and a woman has never to be on her guard against a conversation taking an awkward turn” (39).
- King Louis-Philippe: “The King is an admirable guide to his palaces. I wondered during all our conversation how a man could know the traditions of his family so well and be so proud of them, and yet…However!” (26). I really wish she had completed that sentence.
- Princess Victoria: “The young Princess Victoria struck me the moment I saw her as having grown a little and as being paler and thinner. By this she is much improved, though still too small for the fifteen years which she will complete in three weeks time. The little queen that is to be has a fine complexion and magnificent chestnut hair. In spite of her small stature she is well made; she will have pretty shoulders and fine arms, her expression and her manners are sweet and kindly, she speaks several languages fluently, and it is said that she is being very carefully educated” (42).
Big Events She Covers:
- Court intrigue surrounding King William IV. In 1832, at a party, he told the crowd he had no intention of dying anytime soon so there’d be no need for a minority – a direct slap in the face to Victoria’s mother, who hoped to be regent for her underage daughter. There are lots of little burns like that described in this book.
- Speculation on William IV’s mental state - namely, was he losing his mind? “Among his strangest remarks I must quote his inquiry addressed to Prince Esterhazy, ‘whether people married in Greece?’ ‘I ask,’ he added, noticing that the Prince was rather astonished, ‘because, as of course you know, there are no marriages in Russia’” (50).
- The troubles King Louis-Philippe has in marrying off his daughters. “...the Orleans Princesses — pleasant, well-mannered, well-dowered great ladies as they are, are none the less difficult to marry. There is about them a faint aroma of usurpation which deters certain princely families from an alliance with them. It is curious that King Louis Philippe, who has for his children the sort of affection which it is the fashion to call bourgeois, is so stiff about helping the Princesses, his daughters, out of their difficult position by the large dowries to which they are entitled” (44).
- The ongoing Carlist war in Spain. Ferdinand VII is still alive when this volume opens, but as soon as he dies, Spain erupts into civil war. Some support Ferdinand’s chosen successor, his daughter Isabella, while others who don’t believe a woman can rule will back his brother, Don Carlos. Queen Maria Christina, her daughter's regent, tries to hold things together for her daughter. Dorothea corresponds with General Alava, who tried to use some British troops to quell the revolt: “You were right, my dear Duchesse, when you once said that to enter Spain with foreign troops was to tempt Providence” (274). Does that quote remind anyone else of Vizzini in The Princess Bride (never get involved in a land war in Asia)?
My Favorite Tidbits
- This wack story about Lady Holland faking her own daughter’s death: “…she gave out that her eldest daughter was dead in order not to be forced to surrender her to her first husband, and when she had ceased to care for this child she brought her back to life again, and to prove that she was not buried she had the grave opened, and the skeleton of a goat was found in the coffin. This is going a little too far!” (73-4). Pure WTF territory here, folks.
- This funny story about the King of Sweden and his hair: “The Swedish Minister, M. de Bjoerstjerna, who is always singing the praises of his sovereign even in the most trifling matters, was boasting to M. de Talleyrand the other day of the strength, the grace, and the youthfulness which King Charles-John has retained at his advanced age. He was particularly enthusiastic about the thickness of his Majesty's hair, which he asserted was all ‘as black as jet.’ ‘That seems indeed wonderful,’ said M. de Talleyrand, ‘but is it not possible that the King dyes his hair?’ ‘No, I assure you,’ replied the Swede. ‘Then it is indeed extraordinary,’ said M. de Talleyrand. ‘Yes, indeed,’ continued M. de Bjoerstjerna, ‘the man who every morning pulls out the white hairs from his Majesty's head must have sharp eyes.’ This is worthy of the popular reputation of Sweden as the Gascony of the North” (55).
- How she delivers a burn to a dude she hates: “M. de Montrond talks of returning to Loueche to put his poor body in a bath. It would be a good thing if it were possible to put his soul in also. His visit here was an even worse failure than that of last year. When you have survived yourself, your fortune, your health, your wit, and your manners, and when there does not even remain the faintest reflection of your past glories to give you a little consideration in the world, the spectacle which you present is deplorable. I said one day to M. de Talleyrand that in my opinion nothing was left to M. de Montrond except to blow out his brains” (106).
- The state of the King of Belgium's marriage: “The eldest of our Princesses, the Queen of the Belgians, had so little inclination for the King, her husband, that she refuses ever to return to Compiègne, where her marriage was solemnised; and it is chiefly for this reason that the Court is arranging to go to Fontainebleau. However, this disinclination on the part of Queen Louise has been transformed into a conjugal affection so intense that she lives almost shut up with the King in a tete-a-tete which is hardly interrupted even by her ladies or the Master of the Household who receive all their orders in writing. The King and the Queen occupy adjoining rooms, the doors of which are left open. The King, who is timid and domestic in his habits, likes this sort of life very well, and it is much to his wife's taste, for she is only loved by her husband, while he is adored by her. I have these details from her brother, the Duc d'Orléans” (261).
- Ye Olde Presidential Limo: “The fact that eight horses were attached for the first time to the King’s carriage attracted attention. The real reason for this is unknown to the public, and is as follows. For greater safety the King (without his knowledge) was given the carriage formerly used by the Emperor Napoleon, which is lined with iron throughout to protect it from shots; it is extremely heavy, and requires eight horses” (285).
Should You Read This Book?
Yes, I recommend skimming it. Volume 1 wasn’t quite as lively as volume 2, but there are still plenty of choice tidbits for royal watchers.
There’s a LOT of information about French ministerial crises...and you know what, I just don’t care. Grown-ass men bitching about who they will and won’t work with isn’t my cup of tea.
But you know what is? The Duchess of Cumberland’s ghost story. And the Duchess of Devonshire’s ghost story. And the descriptions of English castles and gardens she toured. And the friendship she struck up with Queen Adelaide. And the machinations of the Duchess of Kent leading up to William IV’s death. It’s good stuff - you just have to wade through a bunch of stuff you’re probably not interested in first. Be brave. The good tidbits are worth it.
Editor: Princesse Radziwill (née Castellane)
Publisher: Charles Scribner’s Sons
Available at: Project Gutenberg (free)
Let’s start with the question everyone’s probably asking right now.
Who the Hell Is the Duchesse de Dino?
Dorothea von Biron, Princess of Courland was born in 1793. Her father (well, maybe) was the last duke of Courland; her mother was the duke’s third wife, Countess Dorothea von Medem. Mom became something of a European celebrity, befriending everyone from poets to kings and princes. One of the men she had an affair with? Talleyrand, the famous French diplomat. Put a pin in that, because we’ll come back to him shortly.
Fast-forward to 1809, when Mom’s former lover Talleyrand was looking for a rich wife for his great-nephew, Edmond. He picked Dorothea. He was so keen on adding her to his family that he asked Tsar Alexander I to put in a good word with her mother about the marriage. It worked, and Dorothea married Edmond in 1809. She and her mom both moved to France.
But Dorothea hated Paris. She felt out of place, and during the Napoleonic wars, her Germanic heritage made her an outcast. Although she and Edmond had three kids, the marriage wasn’t happy.
But then 1815 happened, and suddenly, Dorothea’s fortunes were looking up. The Napoleonic wars were over, and her great-uncle Talleyrand was off to Vienna to help put the world back together. So she went with him, acting as his hostess. Gossip says she started acting like a lot more than a hostess, too. By 1818, she separated from Edmond. In 1820, she was pregnant – possibly with her great-uncle-by-marriage’s baby. (Ew.) That same year, the aging Talleyrand left Paris to live on his country estate, Valençay. Dorothea went with him. They lived together for the rest of his life, including during his stint as French ambassador to London.
You may be wondering why she’s called the Duchesse de Dino. In 1817, as a thank-you for his efforts at the Congress of Vienna, the King of Sicily granted Talleyrand the duchy of Dino. He gave it to Edmond and Dorothea. After he died, she became the Duchesse de Talleyrand.
So…What Did She Write About?
Everything: people, current events, life in the country, life in the city, politics, world events, her fears, her hopes for her kids…literally everything. She was a smart cookie who loved intelligent conversation but struggled with the idea of being an outsider. In France, she was too German. In Germany, she was too French. In London, she was either too French or too German. She loved the quiet of the French countryside, but she kept in constant contact with political movers and shakers. And she reported their doings in her letters, which are the basis for these memoirs, compiled by her granddaughter. You also get snippets of letters from others that she quotes to her pen pal. For example, we hear frequently from her frenemy, the Princesse de Lieven (wife of the Russian ambassador).
The book opens in the middle of a French ministerial crisis. To be honest, I skimmed most of the parts that dealt with dry political bits like ministers’ speeches. I’m here for the royal tidbits, not the inner workings of the government under King Louis-Philippe.
But before too long, the pace picks up – we get the story of two Orléans princes who go on a European tour. Then one of them gets married. Then the Prussian king dies. Then we’re on bump-watch as everyone waits for the new French princess to get pregnant. In short, it’s freaking fascinating.
Big Events She Covers:
- The marriage of the heir to the French throne, the Duc d’Orléans. Vienna turned down his suit for Archduchess Therese, but he lucked out when Princess Helena of Mecklenburg-Schwerin said yes. Turns out, she was the right person for the job and charmed the socks off pretty much everyone at the French court.
- The relatively regular assassination attempts on the French king’s life. Bombings, stabbings, you know - that sort of thing.
- The ongoing Carlist war in Spain. Ferdinand VII died leaving only a baby daughter behind - so of course his asshole brother had to try to usurp the throne, leading to decades of unrest, civil war, and the general decline of a once semi-functioning country.
- The death of King William IV and the ascension of Queen Victoria. There was a ton of intrigue swirling around Victoria’s mom, the Duchess of Kent, and society gossips were keen to repeat it. She wasn’t well liked, but her daughter was - and once she became queen, people were impressed with how she took control in a ballsy yet gracious way.
- The death of her great-uncle-probable-lover-and-possible-baby-daddy, Talleyrand. This dude was a dominant figure in her life - and when he passed away, it tore her world apart. But she was also responsible for Talleyrand’s return to the church before the end. It’s interesting to hear about the last years of someone who not only saw, but participated in such momentous historical events.
- The death of King Frederick William III in Prussia. Dorothea was passing through Berlin at the time, and stopped for royal chit-chats with the heir to the throne, his wife, and most of the rest of the Prussian court. Totes interesting.
My Favorite Tidbits
- Ever wondered how to tell how many people showed up at your ball? The easy answer, courtesy of Marshal Maison’s wife: Put your chambermaid behind the door with a big bag of beans. Tell her to move a bean from the bag to her handbag every time someone comes in the door. Dorothea and the Princess de Lieven almost choked on their champagne, so I’m guessing they saw this as a ridiculous answer.
- Crazy rumors about the Duchess of Kent (Queen Victoria’s mother). From the letter dated June 12, 1837: “The King of England is most seriously ill, and is only kept alive with curacoa and raw meat. He knows that he is dying, and is calling his family round him: the FitzClarences, and even Lord Munster. Mr. Caradoc is said to be taking Sir John Conroy's place with the Duchess of Kent. He sends for presents for her, the cost of which is paid by the Princess Bagration…” (113) Apparently, this Mr. Caradoc was married to Princess Bagration, but using her money to buy presents for the Duchess of Kent, hoping to gain some influence with her and/or her daughter, knowing that King William IV was about to die. I love a good scheme!
- Her description of what it was like to live with someone widely considered a political genius. “My long intercourse with M. de Talleyrand has made it difficult for ordinary people to get on with me; I meet minds which seem slow, diffuse, and ill-developed; they are always putting on the brake, like people going downhill; I have spent my life with my shoulder to the wheel in uphill work. In M. de Talleyrand's lifetime I took more pleasure in the society of others, because I fully enjoyed my own society with him; perhaps also because I sometimes felt the need of rest at some lower elevation.” (184-5)
- The story about Prince Christian of Demark’s first wife. “Prince Christian's first wife was a mad woman with dreadful manners. She went to Rome for refuge and to join the Catholic Church, and there she plunged into the most ridiculous mummeries. Her husband adored her, and if the King of Denmark had not insisted upon a separation Prince Christian would have remained under her yoke. He still corresponds with her, and has never ceased to regret her loss.” I want to know more about her!
- The story about Marshal Richelieu, as told by his son-in-law at a dinner party (summarized): Louis XIV thought the 14-year-old Richelieu was flirting with his granddaughter-in-law and forced him to get married. That wife later died, and he married Mademoiselle de Guise. She died too. One day, at the age of 80, Richelieu had a carriage accident and was helped out by a Mr. and Mrs. de Roothe. He thought Mrs. de Roothe was hot, so he kept coming over to visit her. When Mr. de Roothe died and she found herself a poor widow with four kids to feed, he hooked her up with an apartment in the Tuileries. She wrote to thank him, and when he saw her next, he proposed. She accepted, they got married, and she got pregnant! Unfortunately, Richelieu’s jealous eldest son “induced a chambermaid to give his mother-in-law a draught which brought on a miscarriage.” Dude. What a story! (273) Dorothea was trippin’ on the fact that she was sitting next to someone whose father-in-law had been ordered to get married by Louis XIV – already such a distant historical figure in 1838. That would be like talking to someone today whose father-in-law was there when the phonograph or telephone was invented.
Should You Read This Book?
I recommend it, yes.
I skimmed maybe 25% that dove into the nitty-gritty details of ministerial politics. Anytime I saw the names Thiers, Molé, or Guizot, I kind of tuned out. But Dorothea didn’t - she had one-on-one meetings with all these guys, and they were the power brokers during Louis-Philippe’s reign.
There’s also plenty of interesting stuff to keep you tuned-in. I especially enjoyed her trip through Germany to Silesia – she happened to be in Berlin when the king (Frederick William III) died, and had a privileged visitor’s access to the whole thing. She had one-on-one tea time with “Princess William,” aka Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the future empress. She gives you interesting tidbits and impressions on most of the Prussian royal family, from Princess Albert to Princess Charles to the future Queen of Prussia (Elisabeth of Bavaria).
Her impressions of life in London versus Paris versus Silesia versus the French countryside are also pretty interesting. She’s an introspective person who thinks deeply but is also aware of her mental limitations. She hated Paris and loved London. Why? Because in Paris, “there is no leisure, constant worry, and a continual sense of want.” In London, on the other hand, “I had time for my own occupations, for reading, working, writing, and thinking, nor was I pestered by every idle person. If calling is a tax upon one’s time, calls can be paid at London with an empty carriage and with cards; in short, life there was a pleasure” (5). As a rabid introvert who gets exhausted by a single conversation, dude, I can relate. Maybe Dorothea and I could have been pen pals.
Since I mistakenly started with volume 2, now I’m backtracking to volume 1. I’ll report on that soon!
Editor: Princesse Radziwill (née Castellane)
Publisher: Charles Scribner’s Sons
Available at: Google Books (free)
If you’re not familiar with the Duchesse de Dino, click here and here to read my summaries of the previous two volumes. In this volume, she’s on her own – her great-uncle/lover/babydaddy Talleyrand has been dead for several years. She’s still absorbed by French politics (and I’m still not interested in the goings-on of Molé, Thiers, et al in the ministerial cabinet). I mostly skip those parts.
She still has trouble making female friends. The best she can do is meet up with long-standing acquaintances, and sometimes she comes away with good feelings about them…other times she doesn’t. The Princesse de Lieven is her #1 frenemy, and she’s usually on good terms with Grand Duchess Stéphanie of Baden (except for a visit in 1841, after which Dorothea basically says Stéphanie got on her nerves big time).
Dorothea does a lot of traveling, though, which I find fascinating. I love reading her summaries of who she met, had lunch with, what they talked about, and what she remembers about them. She travels a lot in the time period covered by this volume: we see her in Mannheim, Berlin, Dresden, Prague, Vienna, Silesia, and Nice. And she has friends in high places, like Stéphanie, the king and queen of Prussia, and Prince Metternich.
But here’s the bummer about this volume.
There’s a huge gap in her correspondence during these years. We jump from February of 1843 to January of 1844, get a couple pages, and then jump again to December 1847…just in time for all hell to break loose in 1848. So, while I missed out on any gossip she might have had about Adolph and Lilli’s marriage, she gives fascinating and in-depth reports on what it’s like to live through the revolutionary year of 1848 on a country estate in Silesia while Prussia and Austria are going to hell in a handbasket.
Big Events in This Volume:
- Death of the duc d’Orléans. If you didn’t know this was coming, it would be pretty shocking. The young, vibrant heir to the French throne died because of a…carriage accident. Dorothea tried her best to get a handle on what actually happened, but since she was in the country at the time, she had to relying on secondhand reports and newspaper clippings. So here’s what went down. On July 13, 1842, one of the duc d’Orléans’s carriage horses bolted. He stood up in the carriage to see if there were any obstacles in the path ahead, but there weren’t. Then he looked behind him to see if the footman was okay, but he didn’t see anyone. The prince then jumped out of the carriage, but was hurt so badly in the fall that he died. Not how you want to go, right?
- The fall of the Orléans dynasty. Dorothea was in Berlin when it went down – she got the news by telegraph. On February 28, she said the last 48 hours had brought news of events no one was prepared for. Louis Philippe abdicated, and for fifteen minutes, the Duchesse d’Orléans was regent for her young son, the heir. When she first found out, she had no idea what sparked the abdication. In Berlin, Princess Augusta was overwhelmed and kept Dorothea with her for emotional support. Little by little, they got the news that the king and his family were in London, but that the Duchesse d’Orléans and her kids were in Germany. This was the first hint that there was a rupture in the Orléans family.
- The 1848 revolutions. It’s weird to be reading this during the coronavirus pandemic. You can feel the tension, the fear, the uncertainty…kind of like how we’re all feeling now. Except we’re not in mortal danger from peasant uprisings. The first hint that something was wrong outside of France came from her Berlin letter of March 14. Popular disturbances are expected, she wrote, and the troops had been confined to their barracks. The king made things worse by refusing to convoke the Diet. Then, in late March, there were attacks on town halls and garrisons in Silesia. Dorothea hurried home to Sagan, not far from where the attacks took place, in the hopes that her presence might keep her property safe. Here are a few choice quotes as shit hits the fan:
- March 24: “Meanwhile the financial crisis is at its height: there is no money in the country, no one can pay, bankruptcies are declared on every side, while panic and agitation are paramount. Pandora's box has been overturned upon Europe” (242).
- April 12: “The state of affairs, as we see it, is utterly inexplicable; forecast is impossible. We must live from hand to mouth and be satisfied when every twenty-four hours have passed without some unusual shock. We see many bands of police passing through the town on their way to Posen or Cracow. The Polish land owners are giving their peasants full liberty, to avoid the danger of massacre at their hands” (245).
- April 30: “We have now reached the end of the second month of this upheaval, the shocks of which are, I fear, far from reaching their conclusion. At the present moment Europe is divided between electoral passion and the flames of civil war. Human passion is displayed in all its hideousness during the rivalry aroused by the elections: citizens fight with citizens blindly and furiously, while anarchy, disorder, restlessness, poverty, despondency and despair is the picture to be seen everywhere, with a few slight differences” (248).
- May 28: “Great excitement continues to prevail in the streets of Berlin, and the return of the Prince of Prussia who is expected daily at Potsdam, will probably produce an explosion. Meanwhile Berlin is practically surrounded by a force of sixteen thousand men who can be used if necessary” (251).
- August 13: “Every evening there is some small excitement in the streets which is fomented by the deplorable proceedings of the assembly; moreover, the financial Minister, Herr Hanseman, is proposing laws destined to conclude our ruin. Claims are being laid by the former provinces which may degenerate into revolts and lead to civil war” (256).
- Assassination of Princess Windisch-Gratz. Okay, so that’s not a big event, but I wanted to include it anyway because it shocked me. Writing from Sagan on June 18, 1848, Dorothea says, “And what can be said of the frightful scenes at Prague, and the assassination of poor Princess Windisch-Graetz.” The helpful footnote says: “After a bombardment and some street fighting which lasted from the 12th to the 17th of June, Prince Windisch-Graetz was able to overcome the insurrection at Prague. During these struggles his wife was treacherously shot near the window of her drawing-room, while standing between her listen, from the other side of the street.” Yikes!
So Where Does She Leave Us?
This volume takes us through 1850, when things are still in a serious state of flux. The Russian army helped Emperor Franz Josef put down a revolt in Hungary. Things in the Low Countries (Holland) are unsettled – the monarchs are distinctly unpopular. Louis Napoleon (the future Napoleon III) was elected President in France, while factions for the Orléans and Bourbons still schemed in the background.
There was a full-on parliamentary crisis in Prussia when the king refused to take an oath to the Constitution. He finally did it in February of 1850…so he could then ask the legislative branch for money to prep the military for the next time people started feeling like revolting. It really looked like war between Austria/Bavaria and Prussia in November of 1850, when an unplanned clusterfuck at Fulda led to several deaths. But since no one really wanted war, they managed to save face for the time being…and save all that aggression for the War of 1866.
My Favorite Tidbits
- She thinks people of the 19th century are worn out and dead inside. “Deaths of this [sudden] kind in the time of Louis XIV. would have produced sudden conversions, but nothing can effect the worn-out emotions and the dead consciences of our age, where everything is flat and dull, at home and abroad” (43). The context here? She’s upset by the news that a young and vibrant woman, the Duchesse de Vallambrose, died of puerperal fever a few days after having her second child. Dorothea remembers that the schoolmistress of Rochecotte (where she lives) was cured of this disease by country doctors, but the poor duchess died despite having access to theoretically better care.
- Princess Marie of Baden finally gets married. Dorothea was friends with Grand Duchess Stéphanie of Baden, and in volume two, she witnessed Stéphanie’s distress over a couple failed marriage attempts for her daughter, Marie. Stéphanie got upset every time an eligible bachelor got swept up by some other princess. Poor Marie was still single when Dorothea swung by in 1841…and Stéphanie was super worried that she’d die before her daughter was settled. Then, in late 1842, a marriage is finally announced – to the Marquess of Douglas (later the Duke of Hamilton). As Dorothea says, “The marriage of Princess Marie of Baden is officially announced: her position will not be entirely agreeable to the English court which has resolved to treat her only as the Marchioness of Douglas. The poor Grand Duchess has negotiated the whole business with her usual carelessness” (170).
- Books she read and liked. “Since leaving Paris I have been reading a great deal, first a novel by Bulwer, Night and Morning; it is not uninteresting, but not equal to the early works of the same writer; then a short but delightful book, The Letters of the Princesse de Condé, sister of the last Duc de Bourbon, who died in the Temple as a nun. These letters were written in her youth to one who is still living, and of whom she was very fond, and quite unselfishly so. This was M. Ballanche, the friend of Madame Récamier, who published the letters without appearing as the hero of them. They are authentic, marked by simplicity, tenderness and loftiness of thought, full of devotion, delicacy, sentiment, reason and courage, and written at a time and in a society when the author, her style and her sentiments were quite exceptional. The book is most delightful.” She also greatly enjoyed Custine’s book on Russia: “M. de Custine's book is the only thing which seems to suit me; in spite of the affectation of the style and the brilliancy which is obvious even where it rather diminishes than heightens the effect, and a constant attempt at display, the book amuses and interests me” (195).
- King Ernst of Hanover and Prince George mourns his wife. Ernst was widely detested – he’s usually described as the wickedest of Queen Victoria’s wicked uncles. But he loved his wife, and when she died, he and his son were devastated. Dorothea heard of Ernst’s grief from Madame de Perponcher, and the description of poor George made me tear up: “…For a long time he was under a delusion concerning the state of her health and when the doctors told him that there was no hope, he was completely crushed... The Queen heard the terrible news with the utmost firmness and received the communion with the King, her daughter, the Duchess of Anhalt and poor Prince George. The despair of the latter was heartrending; as he could not see his mother [he was blind], he could not be persuaded that she was dead and insisted that he should be allowed to touch her body. As soon as the father put the mother's cold hand in that of her son, the poor blind man was overcome with a kind of madness. He has since been sent to the seaside. These details are cruel and really most heartrending” (75-6).
- Louis Philippe’s sister, Adélaïde, despairs at the poor marriages her nieces are making. When Dorothea visited Adélaïde in May 1843, news had just broken of Princess Clementine’s engagement to a duke of Saxe-Coburg. “Madame Adelaide seems to be quite in despair at the marriage of Princesse Clementine which will not provide her with a brilliant position, while the Prince is a nonentity. Madame told me it was very embarrassing and ‘even worse than the Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg.’ Madame and the King explained their consent to this marriage on the ground that it was impossible to refuse to a daughter aged twenty-six a marriage which was not absolutely unsuitable, when no other prospects were in view” (190).
- The Empress of Russia and the Duchesse d’Orléans not getting along. “The following is a curious little anecdote: Upon the death of the Duc d'Orléans the Empress of Russia and the Prince of Prussia, who were at St. Petersburg, attempted to persuade the Emperor to take the opportunity of writing directly to King Louis-Philippe; he refused, but told the Empress that he would authorise her to write to the Duchesse d'Orlé The two Princesses had known one another formerly in Germany, and were on such intimate terms as to speak in the second person singular; the Empress wrote in German, using this form; she received a somewhat cold answer in French from which it was absent. The Empress was much hurt, and complained to her aunt, the Princess William of Prussia, sister of the Dowager Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg; the Empress asserts that it is very rude to reply in another language than that used by the first correspondent, and that if the Duchesse d'Orléans thought it her duty to use only the language of her children's country, she, the Empress, would do the same next time and would write in Russian” (204).
- You spent WHAT? “Yesterday I visited the Lichtenstein palace, so fabulous for its magnificence. At the same time whatever income may be forthcoming, to spend eighty thousand florins upon a single chandelier is unpardonable. However, there is more to admire than to criticise in this fine work of modern luxury” (323).
Should You Read This Book?
If you’re looking for an eyewitness account of what it was like to live on a big estate while peasants nearby were rioting and killing landowners, yes.
If you’re looking for details on the downfall of the Orleans dynasty, probably – although she was in Berlin when the dynasty fell, so she’s not as primary a source as you want. But she knew the family firsthand, and visited the Duchesse d’Orléans in exile in Eisenach in August of 1848, so she was in a great position to form judgments and give you the tidbits you’re looking for if you’re an Orléans fan.
Author: Deborah Jay
Publisher: Rosa’s Press
Available at: Amazon
I read this book because - let’s face it - that’s an awesome cover. Yes, I can be that shallow. I read Michelle Moran’s novel about Empress Marie-Louise years ago and enjoyed it, so I was anxious to dive in and see what else I didn’t know about her.
What You Need to Know
First off, let’s start with the facts: this is not a true biography. Well, okay, it is - but it’s a hybrid that includes brief dramatizations and dialogue. It’s meant to bring Marie-Louise alive, to get you to feel like you’re right there with her. The people who’ve reviewed this book on Amazon so far loved this about it. I...didn’t. YMMV.
What do I mean by brief dramatizations? We’re told what she’s thinking and feeling, which of course no one can know without a primary source cited to prove it. For example, we’re told she “perspired under the heavy ermine cloak and iron crown” during the marriage ceremony to Napoleon. (Chapter One) That’s totally likely, but it’s also kind of an intrusive detail inserted to set the scene.
Here’s another example: “Marie-Louise wept at the words she had written. Never had she imagined when she set out on the road to Braunau from Vienna as a dove of peace that her fate would unravel this way.” (Chapter Five) Yes, it’s likely she felt that way - but without a citation or direct quote, it’s little more than historical fiction. It’s a minor thing, but if you just want the facts, these little authorial insertions can be grating.
Good Things about This Book
Before I get into a couple other caveats, I want to tell you what’s GOOD about this book.
Good Thing 1. The sources. The author used primary sources, including letters from Marie-Louise from the Staatsarchiv (among other places), as well as Marie-Louise’s diaries, medial records, and more from the Museo Glauco-Lombardi in Parma. Among secondary sources, very few are in English, which I appreciate. It means we might get more tidbits unknown in the English-speaking world!
Good Thing 2. I love the way this book gives you a closer look at the Habsburg family dynamics. Marie-Louise and her father had a very loving relationship, proven by the letter snippets the author includes. I had no idea Marie-Louise had such awesome relationships with some of her aunts and uncles, too - Archduke Rainer really had her back, and that’s a detail I’d never have known without this book.
Caveats about This Book
Okay, if you’re still with me, it means you’re probably pretty interested in Marie-Louise. In which case, you should skim this book. But I do have a few more caveats you should watch out for.
Caveat 1: The Mary Sue Effect. In this book, Marie-Louise can do no wrong. She’s an enlightened ruler who modernizes Parma’s rules to make life easier for women (specifically, for unwed mothers). She has a modern take on love, romance, and family life. Nothing is ever her fault, and at no point does the author seriously look at what she could have done to avoid being duped, lied to, treated like a pawn, etc. Maybe the answer is nothing, but I’d have felt better if the issue had been carefully examined rather than glossed over.
Caveat 2: The Dialogue. Or are those primary source quotes? It was sometimes hard to tell what was invented dialogue (creative non-fiction elements) and what was an actual quote from a primary source. Not much is footnoted, so you can’t be sure. Also, dialogue from multiple speakers routinely appeared in the same paragraph, causing frequent confusion, like this:
Upon Napoleon’s second exile, Marie-Louise had told the Duke that his father had been sent a long way away to a remote island because he had misbehaved very badly, and that it was unlikely that they would ever see him again.
“Was my father a criminal?” he asked Captain Foresti. “That is not for us to judge: continue to love your father and to pray for him.” (Ch 14)
Caveat 3: The Structure of the Book. It begins with Marie-Louise as she arrives in France to marry Napoleon, and follows a linear timeline through Napoleon’s fall, her flight from Paris, her life in Vienna, and then her time in Parma as its duchess. Then we take a giant step backward and we learn about Marie-Louise’s second husband and her two illegitimate kids with him. That love story began in 1814, but we’re in about 1820 before the author tells us about it. I would have preferred to learn about Marie-Louise’s life in full, as it happened, rather than being fed tidbits at a time and then having to piece it all together later.
Caveat 4: The Editing. From missing words to extra words to repeated sentences to inconsistent naming to pages-long paragraphs to paragraphs that contained dialogue from multiple speakers, there were many issues with the book’s fundamentals. Because I’ve self-published books, I know how hard it is. And because the author did so much research, bringing in primary sources in foreign languages, I congratulate her and want to emulate her in that respect. But at the same time, I can’t help but warn you that this is not polished, elegant writing. If you’re okay with that and just want to read for the historical info (like me), you’ll be good to go.
Author: Christina Croft
Publisher: Hilliard & Croft
Available at: Amazon
There are plenty of books about Queen Victoria’s daughters, sons, granddaughters, and grandsons...but cousins? This sounded way more interesting to me. Her Belgian and Cambridge cousins were the only ones I could name instantly, which meant I needed the crash course this book provided.
This book was really fun to read. It’s organized in chronological order, jumping between the family groups of Queen Victoria’s cousins. It begins with Princess Charlotte, George IV’s doomed daughter, and her husband, Queen Victoria’s beloved Uncle Leopold.
At least one Amazon reviewer didn't like this chronological organization because it admittedly gets confusing for the reader - you have to keep the family groups in your head as the chapters jump between them. Each chapter begins with a cast of characters to help you, and trust me, you need it. The book ends with the death of Queen Victoria’s last surviving cousin, Grand Duchess Augusta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1916.
The main family groups included in this book are the Belgian cousins, the Cambridge cousins, the Cumberland (Hanoverian) cousins, the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha cousins, the Saxe-Coburg Kohary cousins, the Mensdorff-Pouilly cousins, and the Wurttemberg cousins.
This book is valuable as an intro to the lesser-known batches of cousins. The caveat? It’s like a college survey course - you’ll learn just enough to pique your interest, but you’re not going to get much depth. That’s fine, because the book isn’t meant to be more than a survey.
My Favorite Cousin
The cousin that stood out most to me is Princess Augusta of Cambridge, who married into the Mecklenburg-Strelitz family. Augusta was a firecracker - always ready with a pithy comment and a strong opinion about everything from Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (“Why is she thanking God in the street?”) to her granddaughter Marie, pregnant with an out-of-wedlock child. Augusta was one of the only people to support Marie and treat her like a human being instead of an embarrassment. I wish there was a full-length biography of her in English, but there isn’t. We have to read between the lines and get glimpses of her in books like Pope-Hennessy's biography of Queen Mary.
My Favorite Tidbit
Another interesting tidbit I enjoyed was about George, the future King of Hanover. He contracted scarlet fever, and was almost given up for dead. The doctors sent for his father, who jumped up from the dinner table with a glass of Steinberg wine still in his hand. Dad forced the glass of wine down his sick son’s throat, and to the doctors’ surprise, George started to get better right away. Every year afterward, on George’s birthday, the family raised a glass of Steinberg wine.
What, you ask, is Steinberg wine?
The Steinberg vineyard is in Germany, near Eberbach Abbey in the Rheingau. Most of the wine produced there is riesling, but they also do a bit of rosé.
What I Learned
Before reading this book, I knew literally nothing about Queen Victoria’s Mensdorff-Pouilly cousins - children of Queen Victoria’s maternal aunt Sophie and her husband, Emmanuel Mensdorff-Pouilly.
Beautiful, cultured Sophie fell in love with Emmanuel, son of a noble family who’d fled revolutionary-era France. They married in 1804 and settled in the Austrian empire. A young Queen Victoria called their sons “the nicest cousins we have.” (Chapter 7)
The author takes a detour here, telling the story of Sophie’s sister Juliane, who made a disastrous marriage into the Russian imperial family. Strictly speaking, this vignette has nothing to do with the book since the marriage produced no kids who would have been Queen Victoria’s cousins. But you know what? I’d rather have the information than not, so I agree with the author’s decision to include the most entertaining information about these families.
Overall, I recommend this book as a general-interest survey of the people involved. Want to learn more? Go dig into the specific characters who interest you. This book fulfills its role perfectly as an introduction. Read it with a glass of Steinberg riesling or rosé...you know, for authenticity's sake.
Author: Charlotte Zeepvat
Publisher: Thistle Publishing
Available at: Amazon
I picked up this book through Kindle Unlimited because I’d read that Hilda of Nassau was considered as a bride for one of Queen Victoria’s sons. But which one? And how seriously? If it was Leopold (my guess, based on their ages), I was hoping to find mention of it in here.
I really enjoy Charlotte Zeepvat’s writing. Her Romanov Autumn has a place of honor on my shelf, and this book was also extremely engaging. All I knew about Leopold prior to reading it was that he had hemophilia, had an unexpectedly successful young life (married and fathered children), and died young. That’s it.
Zeepvat’s original research in the Royal Archives brought out so many new facets of Leopold’s life.
Here are a few highlights:
- His close relationship with his sisters, Louise and Alice. Because of their ages, Leopold and Louise grew up together in the same nursery and developed a bond that never wavered. (BTW, Leopold’s tutor was the one Louise is rumored to have fallen in love with as a young girl - and possibly more.) As for Alice, Leopold shared some of her fatalism and, after her early death, really bonded with her widower, Louis, and their kids. As three of the four kids who were most at odds with Victoria over the years, it’s not surprising Louise, Leopold, and Alice had deeper and more supportive relationships with each other. Little-known heart-breaking fact: When Empress Alexandra of Russia was murdered in 1918, she was wearing two bracelets that Uncle Leopold had given her as a child.
- The protective (okay, smothering) nature of Queen Victoria’s relationship with him. It’s understandable that a mother wants to protect her child, especially before he’s old enough to understand his condition and guard against accidents that could kill him. But Victoria’s parenting style went beyond protective. When he was still little, she asked his governors and tutors to monitor everything about his health and activities. His doctors fed him a diet of laxatives, so afraid that “straining” would end up triggering a bleeding episode. OMG, can you imagine being a five-year-old boy and having to be watched or interrogated about your bathroom activities? It’s a crap life (pun not intended), and honestly, I’m surprised Leopold came out sane. As he grew up, Victoria never wanted Leopold to leave her, both for his safety and because she wanted him to serve as a sort of private secretary for life. To achieve that, she denied him chances for travel, adventure, higher education, and jobs he would have kicked ass at. It was downright painful to read Leopold’s letters to his siblings and friends, expressing his frustration at not being able to have the same opportunities they had.
- His ties to Oxford University and the scholarly community there, including Dean Liddell and his daughters (one of whom was the inspiration for Alice in Alice in Wonderland). There’s been some speculation that he was in love with one of the Liddell girls - but honestly, the evidence that it was romantic love seems sparse to me. Based on the info provided, it felt more like deep friendship and affection. He was in love with someone he called “the fair one,” but that’s all we know. Mrs. Liddell was satirized as hunting for a royal son-in-law, but that’s not proof Leopold was in love with one her daughters. Zeepvat makes the case that she would have known better than to believe it could happen.
- His American tour! I had no idea he was ever here. It happened in 1880, while visiting Louise in Canada (her hubby was Governor General of Canada). They saw Niagara Falls, met General Sherman in Chicago, and attended part of the Republican Party Convention (snoozefest). He didn't make it to California, unfortunately. This makes me want to go back and hit up the British Newspaper Archive and Newspapers.com to see what everyone said about him.
- The intensity of Leopold’s desire to make something of himself. You know, not everyone would have scoffed at the golden parachute Queen Victoria offered him: lifetime room and board in exchange for companionship and near-servitude. If all you want is an easy, relatively stress-free life, that’s what Leopold could have had. But that wasn’t enough for him. He remembered his father’s goals for his kids - to become educated and to make a difference in the world. He knew writing his mother’s letters wasn’t making a difference in the world and it ate away at him knowing that’s all she wanted for him. Toward the end of his life, their relationship had disintegrated to the point where they were barely speaking. It was painful to read, and as much as I sympathize with a mother’s love, I sided with Leopold here.
- The emotional strength of his wife, Princess Helena of Waldeck-Pyrmont. I want to know more about this woman. She barely knew Leopold when he proposed, but she accepted him despite the challenges his fragile health presented. Later, when they knew each other better, she understood and encouraged his need to make something of himself. Leopold can’t have been an easy man to live with. Because of his fraught relationship with Mom, he was moody and quick to anger. When she said yes to the dress, Helena walked into a powder keg that was ready to blow. But she handled everyone - Leopold, Victoria, his siblings - as gracefully as anyone could have done. She’s a model of patience, calm, restraint, and decorum. That makes her sound a little boring, but that’s not what I mean to convey. I mean all those things in the best possible sense. If you need someone at Queen Victoria’s court to have your back, you want that someone to be Helena. Or Marie, Duchess of Edinburgh. Or both.
- The controversy surrounding his cause of death. There’s not usually much question about what caused the death of a hemophiliac. Small bumps or bruises can lead to internal bleeding, which at the time, was impossible to stop. But was the knock Leopold took to the knee in 1884 really severe enough to kill him? In an endnote, Zeepvat raises the logical (and terrifying) idea that it was actually a combination of alcohol and opium that killed him.
And as to my original purpose in reading this book? Hilda of Nassau wasn’t mentioned at all, so my guess is she wasn’t considered seriously as a bride for Leopold.
Author: Susan Ronald
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Available at: Amazon
I wish I could recommend this book, but there are several reasons why I can’t. The author did a ton of original archival research, which I respect to no end. Although she made huge leaps forward in piecing together the holes in the diamond’s six-hundred-plus-year history, the end product just isn’t very enjoyable to read.
What Went Right
Tracing the history of a fabulous diamond sounds fun, right? I thought so, too. And you do get an exhaustive history of the diamond’s peregrinations in this book, right down to quotes from renaissance-era sales invoices.
What Went Wrong
This book gets really bogged down in names, dates, and dollar values. I fell asleep quite a few times while slogging through it. You don’t get a feel for any of the personalities involved, so it feels like a bunch of dry details. Louis XV was amorous. Napoleon was ambitious. The Demidovs were rapacious. That’s all we get in terms of the characters we meet. It’s just not enough to sustain long-term interest as we’re bombarded with dollar values and invoices.
The books also veers off-topic a few too many times, ignoring the person who owned the Sancy in favor of loads of general detail about, say, Burgundian court politics or Portuguese exploration and the spice trade. It would have benefited from a very thick pen wielded by a very strong-willed editor. Ronald spends dozens of pages on its Burgundian and Portuguese owners, for example, and none on Maria Luisa of Spain, who (according to her) tricked Napoleon out of the diamond. All we’re told is that she is “avaricious and bitter” (270). What’s up with that?
There are also some serious mistakes in terms of historical events. Here are just a few:
- “…Empress Catherine the Great, who took the throne in 1725” (279). She wasn’t even born until 1729.
- “the palace [Tuileries] was stormed by a mob on August 17, 1792” (250). It was on August 10th. Seems minor, but this is a really well-known date in the story of the French Revolution.
- “All of the booty [of the French emigres, and later, the crown jewels] was stored in the garde-meuble at the Louvre…” (244). It was a separate building, not part of the Louvre.
- “…all those [paintings] in the Palace of Whitehall were destroyed in the Great Fire of London of 1661” (205). The Great Fire didn’t reach the palace. It burned in a separate conflagration in 1698.
And some dubious claims:
- “Napoleon’s meteoric rise to power was assured at Marengo – by the splendid Spanish horses acquired on a deferred payment plan using the Sancy as security” (257). Not an expert, but am pretty sure it wasn’t horses that assured his rise to power.
- “Philippe of Orléans had never been allowed to participate in public life under Louis XIV, not because the king had any personal misgivings about the duke but rather because Louis mistrusted all of his nobility. Deprived of any real role, Philippe was the perfect rake” (222). Erm…kind of, but not really. Philippe was the king’s nephew, not just some random courtier. And the king’s close relatives didn’t exactly have ministerial jobs – they were expected to be decorous and not much else. So it’s not like he had been refused any sort of role – he was actually fulfilling the role intended for him. Plus, like his father, Philippe fought in the army during the numerous wars of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
And just some strange quirks with sourcing:
- There are no endnotes or footnotes. Ronald uses in-text citations for direct quotes, but doesn’t do anything to source claims that aren’t a direct quote. For example, she describes a necklace that Napoleon gave Josephine, but doesn’t tell us where that info comes from.
Overall, the book fulfills its promise of giving you the history of the Sancy diamond. But it fails in making that journey an enjoyable or rewarding one.
Subtitle: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia 1865-1871
Editor: Roger Fulford
Available at: ABE Books (used)
I love reading the letters Queen Victoria and her eldest daughter, Vicky, wrote to each other after Vicky married and went to Prussia. That’s partly because I’m nosy, and partly because it turns them into real people, not cardboard historical figures. Despite the tiaras and the gowns and the palaces, here are ladies talking about ordinary things you or I would talk about: the shittiness of menopause, skin conditions, annoying relatives, annoying kids, underachieving relatives, underachieving kids, goals, hopes, dreams, and losses. It’s fascinating.
This is the third volume in the sequence, covering the years 1865-1871. If you’re familiar with Prussian history, you know these years cover two important events: the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The latter led directly to the unification of Germany, making Vicky’s in-laws Emperor and Empress of Germany, not just King and Queen of Prussia. Note: They would HATEHATEHATE that I used the word “just” to describe the roles of King and Queen of Prussia. (Suck it, Wilhelm - you did next-to-nothing to halt Bismarck’s aggression.)
Understandably, war and politics take center stage here. But I’m more interested in the human aspect: the snippy asides, the gossip, the praise, the rebukes, and the revealing comments.
Here are a few quotes to give you an idea of what it’s like to read these letters:
1. They talk about being a morning person vs. being a night person:
Vicky: “I believe nothing is better for the nerves than rising very early and having a walk before breakfast, and going early to rest - but this I think you do not like, and it does not suit you. For me it does wonders” (200).
QV: “Going to bed early and getting up early would be a total impossibility for me. The night is the only quiet time for me - and I feel able to work then and not in the morning early. Dear Papa was very different...” (201)
2. They clash over the value of children (Vicky loves them, the Queen kinda hates them)
QV: “Believe me, children are a terrible anxiety and that the sorrow they cause is far greater than the pleasure they give. I therefore cannot understand your delight at the constant increase of them!...Believe me a large family is a misfortune” (263). Said the woman who had nine kids.
QV: “While children are small, they cheer and enliven a house very much and are an object of great interest and pleasure, mixed with anxiety. But when they grow up and you can no longer help them and they resist your advice and help - then you wish you had had none!” (264)
3. They disagree about Eliabeth Barrett Browning’s poem “Aurora Leigh.”
QV: “It is very strange, very original full of talent and of some beautiful things - but at times dreadfully coarse - though very moral in its tendency - but an incredible book for a lady to have written...there is much genius in it” (19).
Vicky: “I dislike it extremely...I looked for the genius and found nothing but eccentricity and the most disagreeable coarseness, which I suppose is meant to be force of language” (19).
See what I mean? They become real from the very first letter in the collection. Vicky, in particular, is a wonderful letter writer. You’ll want her for a pen pal, I promise.
More Interesting Incidents
Here’s a quick run-down of a few specific incidents I found interesting in this volume:
- Queen Victoria was super butthurt when Vicky basically ignored her book, Highland Diary. She gives Vicky all the details about being edited, the proofreading process, and getting reviews. Vicky, who didn’t approve of the book, did the tactful thing and just let the subject drop. But Victoria just kept bringing it up - new editions, sales, more reviews, always wanting Vicky to tell her she was proud of her. But that was something Vicky couldn’t do, at least not for this particular project. As an author, it was hilarious and touching to see a queen go through the same emotional turmoil I do when a book goes out into the world.
- Queen Victoria had some surprisingly liberal views on royalty marrying subjects. “A marriage here with a subject is just as good as with any other person, and the children born of such a union can just as well succeed to the throne as those born of one with a Prince” (302). At the same time, Victoria thought British aristocrats were debauched and useless, praising in contrast the working classes for their simplicity, loyalty, and work ethic. It’s a contradiction, for sure, because when she says “marry a subject,” I’m sure she really means “aristocrat.” That’s exactly what her daughter, Princess Louise, did when she married Lord Lorne - who Victoria originally didn’t like, but wrote about changing her opinion after chatting with him in person. Victoria had a hang-up about royal bloodlines producing unhealthy kids. She complains about her son Bertie’s kids and how puny and weak they are, and how she wished the family had some fresh blood. Non-royals were part of her answer to that problem. But only the *right* non-royals - no actresses or singers, like the ones her sons took as mistresses.
- Vicky and Victoria chat about potential brides for Affie and Arthur, Vicky’s younger brothers. It’s hilarious to hear what they think about some of the candidates. Elisabeth of Wied was a front-runner who just didn't pan out. Her name comes up over and over again, particularly in Victoria’s letters. At one point, she even bemoans the fact that Bertie (Edward VII) married Alexandra of Denmark instead of Elisabeth! Yowza! How’s that for a royal bombshell? In fact, throughout this whole volume, Victoria is surprisingly negative towards “dear Alix,” an aspect of their relationship I wasn’t familiar with, even after reading Georgina Battiscombe’s biography of Alix. It seems Alix disappointed Victoria because she wasn't a strict mother, capable of intellectual conversation, or regal enough to show Bertie off to his best advantage (gasp). Vicky is quick to defend Alix, which I was happy to see.
- It’s during this time that Victoria’s cousin, Charlotte of Belgium, goes mad. She and Vicky share the terrible news, and we get tidbits of the story as it’s passed from Victoria’s cousin, Leopold II of Belgium (Charlotte’s brother) to Victoria to Vicky. I already knew the story, but it was heartbreaking to see the drama play out among Charlotte’s cousins. It’s interesting as a side note that no one casts any of the blame onto the French for spearheading the Mexican travesty (a popular modern position). Vicky says she heard gossip that Charlotte’s madness started when her brother and sister-in-law refused to receive her upon her return to Europe, and when Napoleon III refused to send help for Max (who was still in Mexico). Victoria replies with a total WTF, saying that if Prince Albert had lived, he’d have prevented the entire thing! Also, she says Charlotte is the one who urged Max to accept the throne of Mexico, implying that this is partly her own fault. Vicky just can’t seem to absorb the truth - she writes back, “She who was so quiet and self-possessed, so calm and serious and yet of cheerful disposition I cannot understand how such a thing could happen. I love her so much” (104). Doesn’t that just break your heart?
Should You Read It?
In a word, yes. You’ll see Queen Victoria’s continuing friendship with Empress Eugenie, her difficulties with her daughter Alice and son Affie, and her grief over the death of her BFF, the duchess of Sutherland.
As for Vicky, you’ll see her troubles with the German press, Bismarck, her ladies-in-waiting, her in-laws, and pretty much everyone in Prussia. That girl had it rough. But through it all, she
maintained an amazingly positive attitude. She was always there to play peacemaker between her mother and siblings. And always ready to give her mom the respect and love she deserved. I admire that tremendously.
Overall, I highly recommend this series if you want a fascinating perspective on Victorian royal life.
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